Where Are Botflies Found? Discover Their Habitats and Regions

Botflies are fascinating yet often unwelcome creatures that are found in various parts of the world.

These flies belong to the Oestridae family and rely on myiasis—the infestation of host skin—for their larvae’s nutrition.

In this article, you’ll discover where botflies are commonly found and how their locations might impact your outdoor adventures.

You may stumble upon botflies across North and South America, with certain species native to specific areas.

Where Are Botflies Found

For example, the tree squirrel bot fly (Cuterebra emasculator) is found in Florida.

Another familiar species in the United States is Cuterebra fontinella, which inhabits most of the continental US, southern Canada, and northeastern Mexico.

When it comes to encountering these creatures, it’s helpful to understand their preferred habitats, since various types of botflies have a high degree of host specificity.

Understanding the geographical distribution and host preferences of botflies can help you stay informed about these fascinating parasites.

As you explore these infested regions, being aware of their presence enables you to better protect yourself and any animals in your care.

Overview of Botflies

Botflies are a group of insects belonging to the families Oestridae and Cuterebridae. These arthropods might make you feel a bit uncomfortable, but they play a significant role in their ecosystems.

Botflies rely on a unique method to infest their larval hosts: by using other species for travel, like mosquitoes, ticks, and flies.

Female botflies capture a mosquito, attach their eggs to its abdomen, and when the mosquito lands on a host, the eggs sense the temperature change, and the larvae emerge3.

These insects can affect a variety of hosts, including squirrels, dogs, cats, horses and even humans. Typically, the larval stage in the skin tissue lasts between 27 and 128 days.

After their life cycle in the host is complete, the larvae drop to the ground and undergo a pupation process before developing into adult botflies4.

Where Are Botflies Found? Distribution of Botflies

In the Americas, botflies are primarily found in the tropics, but their range extends to other regions as well.

In the United States, the most common bot fly, Cuterebra fontinella, occurs in most of the continental US, except Alaska.

Their range also includes southern Canada and northeastern Mexico1.

Other species, like deer botflies, or deer nose botflies (Cephenemyia spp.), can be found in North America2.

Moving further south, botflies are present in Central and South America as well, reaching all the way to northern Argentina2.

The human botfly, Dermatobia hominis, is found in Central and South America, from Mexico to Northern Argentina, excluding Chile.

It can also infest horses in Central and South America.

Some cases have also been reported in Europe. In the UK, bot species are more active in the South and Midland areas.

  • Cuterebra fontinella: Continental US, southern Canada, northeastern Mexico
  • Dermatobia hominis: Central and South America, Europe and UK
  • Other botflies: Central and South America

Overall, their distribution seems to be largely limited to the Americas3.

Life Cycle of Botflies

Egg Stage

During the egg stage of the botfly life cycle, the female botfly deposits her eggs on a host, which could be a mammal such as rabbit, rodent, or even your pets like dogs.

Sometimes, the eggs are laid on surfaces near the host, or on a vector like a mosquito (the intermediary that carries botfly eggs). When these mosquitoes bite mammals, they transfer the botfly eggs to them.

Larvae Stage

In the larvae stage, the botfly larvae can hatch from the eggs after sensing the body heat of their host. They then burrow into the skin and start feeding on their host’s tissues.

During this parasitic stage, the larvae develop a breathing tube through a small hole in the host’s skin. The larval stage can last from 27 to 128 days, depending on the species and conditions.

Key features of the larvae stage:

  • Burrow into host’s skin for nutrition
  • Develop a breathing tube through host’s skin
  • Parasitic stage lasts 27 to 128 days

Adult Stage

The adult stage of the botfly life cycle begins after the larvae mature and drop from their host. They then pupate in the ground for a period ranging from 27 to 78 days.

Adult botflies resemble bumblebees and have rudimentary or non-functioning mouthparts. Their primary purpose is to reproduce and lay eggs, continuing the cycle.

Botflies Infestation in Humans

Symptoms of Infestation

A botfly infestation, known as myiasis, occurs when a human botfly larva burrows under your skin.

You may notice a lump or swelling at the infestation site, which can be accompanied by itching or pain. If the larva is close to the skin surface, you might even see a small hole where its breathing tubes extrude.

Treatment Procedures

If you suspect a botfly infestation, consult your doctor for appropriate treatment. They may recommend an antibiotic to prevent infection.

Some at-home methods involve applying nail polish or petroleum jelly on the wound to suffocate the larva, making it easier to remove with tweezers.

However, it’s best to rely on medical guidance to ensure complete removal and recovery.

Botflies Infestation in Animals

Symptoms and Treatment

Botflies are parasites that infest animals like livestock, cattle, and horses. They lay their eggs on the host’s body, and the larvae burrow into the tissues, causing discomfort and painful wounds. Common symptoms include:

  • Warbles: bulging lumps on the skin, where the larvae reside
  • Irritation and itchiness around the affected area
  • Secondary infections, which may sometimes lead to severe health problems or even death

If you suspect your animals have a botfly infestation, it is crucial to consult a vet.

They can help identify and remove the larvae, clean the wounds, and may prescribe medication to prevent infections or other complications.

In some cases, ticks may also be found in the wound area, requiring additional treatment.

Prevention Measures

To protect your animals from botflies infestation, follow these steps:

  1. Regular Checkups: Perform routine inspections to spot any botfly eggs, larvae, or warbles. If you find any, promptly contact your vet for assistance.
  2. Proper Grooming: Keep your animals clean and well-groomed. Regular brushing helps remove eggs or larvae before they can burrow into the skin.
  3. Control Pests: Maintain a tick- and fly-free environment by using insecticides and repellents approved for use on animals.
  4. Timely Treatment: If you spot any signs of infestation, act promptly to minimize the risk of spreading or complications.
Prevention MeasuresProsCons
Regular CheckupsEarly detection can minimize risks and complicationsTime-consuming, requires a sharp eye for spotting eggs/larvae
Proper GroomingHelps maintain overall hygiene, prevents potential infestationsAnimals might resist grooming, takes time and effort
Control PestsProtects animals from pests, promotes a healthy environmentInsecticides can be costly; some pests might develop resistance
Timely TreatmentReduces complications and risk of spreading, promotes faster recoveryVet visits can be expensive, treatment might be uncomfortable

By following these prevention measures, you can proactively protect your animals from botflies infestation, ensuring their health and well-being.

Noteworthy Botfly Types

Dermatobia Hominis

The Dermatobia hominis, also known as the human bot fly, is a species found mostly in Central and South America.

It uses mosquitoes and other insects as vectors to lay its eggs on human skin. When the eggs hatch, larvae burrow under your skin and develop, causing irritation and pain.

Cuterebra Fontinella

The Cuterebra fontinella is another botfly species, commonly found in the United States and Canada.

This type mainly targets rodents, such as mice and squirrels, but can sometimes affect pets like cats and dogs. Its larvae, like other botflies, will live inside their host and cause discomfort.

Warble Flies

Warble flies, or heel flies and gadflies, are another group of botflies that can be found in various parts of the world.

These insects can cause “warbles” or lumps on their host’s skin, as their larvae live just under the skin’s surface. Livestock, such as cattle and sheep, are often the targets of warble flies.

Other Significant Types

There are also other significant types of botflies, such as:

  • Oestrus ovis, also called the sheep nasal bot fly, which lays eggs in nasal passages of sheep.
  • Gasterophilus intestinalis, or the horse stomach botfly, targeting horses and laying eggs on their legs.

These species, like the examples above, are parasitic and can cause discomfort in their hosts. Be aware of these botflies when traveling or caring for animals in the regions they inhabit.

Conclusion

In conclusion, botflies, belonging to the Oestridae and Cuterebridae families, are found across various regions, primarily in the Americas.

Their distribution includes North and South America, extending from the United States and Canada to Northern Argentina, with some species even reported in Europe.

These flies have a unique reproductive strategy involving myiasis, where larvae infest the skin of various hosts, including humans and animals.

Understanding their geographical distribution and host specificity is crucial for outdoor enthusiasts and pet owners to take preventive measures against botfly infestations.

Awareness of their presence in certain regions can help in better protecting oneself and animals under care, ensuring safety during outdoor activities and maintaining animal health.

Footnotes

  1. Cuterebra fontinella 2

  2. Deer bot flies 2

  3. Botfly and its phoretic vector 2

  4. Human botfly life cycle

Reader Emails

Over the years, our website, whatsthatbug.com has received hundreds of letters and some interesting images asking us about bot flies. Scroll down to have a look at some of them.

Letter 1 – Bot Fly

Large black and grey fly
Hello,
My name is Dacon, and I live in Wisconsin. The other night my family and I were getting ready to have a meal in our gazebo, when I noticed this large fly on the inside wall of the gazebo. I tried to catch it in a can, but slipped up. However, it did perch on the edge if the lid for a close-up. It was grey and black with black wings, plus two stubby wings or horns just in front of the wings. It was also about an inch long, and thich bodied. I have searched for an identity, but have been unsuccessful. Please help. Thank you for your time.

Hi Dacon,
This amazing creature is a Bot Fly or Warble Fly. The larvae of Bot Flies are endoparasites. Most North American species have rodents as host, but tropical species are human parasites. Bot Flies are in the family Oestridae, and New World species are in the subfamily Cuterebrinae.

Letter 2 – Bot Fly

Black Horsefly
Howdy!
Great Web site! I’m the airport photographer at Cottonwood Airport, Arizona. I happened to be in an open hangar Monday (23rd) afternoon and spotted this black Horsefly on the floor. It was a very hot day and the fly appeared to have trouble flying — in fact, it acted like it was exhausted and really didn’t want to move. I just happened to have my Canon SD950 camera with me that day (I normally have my Nikon D300) and decided to try an get a picture of it, using Macro mode. (After all, I photograph everything else that flies!) I’m somewhat pleased with the result and thought I’d share it with you. If you care to use it, you have my permission. Keep up the good work.
Gordon Goddard
Cottonwood Airport Photographer

Howdy to you too Gordon,
This isn’t a horse fly. It is a Bot Fly. The larvae are internal parasites of rodents, and depending upon the species, other mammals.

Letter 3 – Bot Fly


my cat brought this in to my room, do you know what it is?
Kevin Santana

Hi Kevin,
This is a Bot Fly in the genus Cuterebra. They are endoparasites on various animals and are sometimes called Warble Flies.

Letter 4 – Bot Fly

Big, fat fly
Tue, Oct 28, 2008 at 6:56 PM
October….about a month after Hurricane Ike. North Houston. We live in a densely wooded area. This big boy flew in my front door. At first I thought it was one of those large hornets b/c the buzz of his wings was so loud. He flew about clumsily, then finally flew out the back door.
I didn’t get too close but it looked to be mostly black, some white, maybe a little fuzzy….about the size of a small grape.  Am curious to know the name to find out if it’s common to the area, or perhaps blew in from elsewhere with the recent storm.
Kelly
Houston, Texas (north)

Bot Fly
Bot Fly

Hi Kelly,
This is a Bot Fly.  The larva is an internal parasite that usually parasitizes rodents.

Letter 5 – Bot Fly

Subject: Black bug
Location: Gunnison, Colorado
July 21, 2014 5:08 pm
I found this bug in my home. I thought it was a bee at first but then with a closer look it seemed to be an oversized fly. I looked up horseflies but the bug I found had widest eyes. What is it?
Signature: Audrey

Bot Fly
Bot Fly

Dear Audrey,
There is enough detail in your images for us to determine that this is a Bot Fly in the genus
Cuterebra, the Rodent Bot Flies, but we haven’t the necessary skills, and we suspect there is not enough image detail for even an expert to determine a species identification.  You can compare your image to this individual from BugGuide that also is identified only to the genus level.  According to BugGuide:  “Females typically deposit eggs in the burrows and “runs” of rodent or rabbit hosts. A warm body passing by the eggs causes them to hatch almost instantly and the larvae glom onto the host. The larvae are subcutaneous (under the skin) parasites of the host. Their presence is easily detected as a tumor-like bulge, often in the throat or neck or flanks of the host. The larvae breathe by everting the anal spiracles out a hole (so they are oriented head-down inside the host). They feed on the flesh of the host, but only rarely does the host die as a result.”

Letter 6 – Bot Fly

Subject: What bug is this?
Location: Maple Grove, MN
July 26, 2014 4:57 pm
Found in our flower garden today. What is this bug?
Signature: William Huybrecht

Bot Fly
Bot Fly

Hi William,
This is a Rodent Bot Fly in the genus
Cuterebra, and they do not feed as adults.  The larvae are subcutaneous parasites on rodents and rabbits.

Letter 7 – Bot Fly

Subject: Bot fly?
Location: Northeast Wisconsin
March 7, 2017 6:44 pm
Thank you in advance for your time.
The other night I woke up with a stinging sensation on the edge of my upper lip. Turn on the light and I see this insect on the back of my hand.
I live in northeast Wisconsin, and this this occurred the first week of March. We had a week over unseasonably warm weather and I had brought some things in from the garage where I believe it hitchhiked in.
Signature: v/r, Luke

Bot Fly

Dear Luke,
We agree that this is a Bot Fly.  To the best of our knowledge, they do not sting nor bite, and we suspect the sensation you felt upon being startled from your sleep relates to the Bot Fly’s legs brushing against your sensitive lips.

Letter 8 – Bot Fly

Subject:  Black bug
Geographic location of the bug:  Southwest Mississippi
Date: 10/03/2018
Time: 04:31 PM EDT
Your letter to the bugman:  What is this thing? Is it dangerous?
How you want your letter signed:  Judy

Bot Fly

Dear Judy,
This is a Bot Fly in the genus
Cuterebra, and it poses no threat to humans.  According to BugGuide:  “Females typically deposit eggs in the burrows and ‘runs’ of rodent or rabbit hosts. A warm body passing by the eggs causes them to hatch almost instantly and the larvae glom onto the host. The larvae are subcutaneous (under the skin) parasites of the host. Their presence is easily detected as a tumor-like bulge, often in the throat or neck or flanks of the host. The larvae breathe by everting the anal spiracles out a hole (so they are oriented head-down inside the host). They feed on the flesh of the host, but only rarely does the host die as a result.” We will attempt to contact Jeff Boettner to see if he can provide any species information.

Bot Fly
Thank you! I’ve heard of bot flies….mainly on Dr. Pol. Never thought I’d see one. I appreciate your help.
Judy

Letter 9 – Rodent Bot Fly

Subject:  black spotted white bumblebee?
Geographic location of the bug:  pennsylvania
Date: 07/13/2019
Time: 06:58 PM EDT
Your letter to the bugman:  I spotted this bug after it landed on a blade of grass and hung there behind me. I originally thought it was a carpenter bee because that’s what it sounded like flying by. However, when I turned around and saw what it I was shocked. It was pretty docile and hung out upside down for about 8 minutes of the same blade of grass, and was calm enough to call several people over to it to check it out. I am so interested to see what this is!
How you want your letter signed:  Lyndsey Mertz

Rodent Bot Fly

Dear Lyndsey,
This is a Rodent Bot Fly in the genus Cuterebra, but we would require an expert opinion regarding the species.  We will attempt to contact Jeff Boettner for assistance in this matter.  According to BugGuide:  “Females typically deposit eggs in the burrows and ‘runs’ of rodent or rabbit hosts. A warm body passing by the eggs causes them to hatch almost instantly and the larvae glom onto the host. The larvae are subcutaneous (under the skin) parasites of the host. Their presence is easily detected as a tumor-like bulge, often in the throat or neck or flanks of the host. The larvae breathe by everting the anal spiracles out a hole (so they are oriented head-down inside the host). They feed on the flesh of the host, but only rarely does the host die as a result.”  this is our first Bot Fly image this season.  They are such unusual looking creatures and they are frequently mistaken for Bumblebees.

Rodent Bot Fly

Letter 10 – Bot Fly

Subject:  Bumble Bee mimicking hoverfly?
Geographic location of the bug:  Central New York
Date: 07/16/2020
Time: 05:55 PM EDT
Your letter to the bugman:  Hello!
I was startled by what I thought was a bumblebee in my bedroom, until I started to scoop it up in a glass and carry it outside, and I realized it was something like a monstrous horsefly. After some internet searching, I see it is a hover fly, but cannot seem to find this species. For scale, the wires are half an inch apart.
Thanks for any help!
How you want your letter signed:  Shoo Fly Don’t Bother Me

Rodent Bot Fly

Dear Shoo Fly,
This is actually a Rodent Bot Fly.

Reader Emails

Over the years, our website, whatsthatbug.com has received hundreds of letters and some interesting images asking us about these insects. Scroll down to have a look at some of them.

Letter 1 – Bot Fly

Large black and grey fly
Hello,
My name is Dacon, and I live in Wisconsin. The other night my family and I were getting ready to have a meal in our gazebo, when I noticed this large fly on the inside wall of the gazebo. I tried to catch it in a can, but slipped up. However, it did perch on the edge if the lid for a close-up. It was grey and black with black wings, plus two stubby wings or horns just in front of the wings. It was also about an inch long, and thich bodied. I have searched for an identity, but have been unsuccessful. Please help. Thank you for your time.

Hi Dacon,
This amazing creature is a Bot Fly or Warble Fly. The larvae of Bot Flies are endoparasites. Most North American species have rodents as host, but tropical species are human parasites. Bot Flies are in the family Oestridae, and New World species are in the subfamily Cuterebrinae.

Letter 2 – Bot Fly

Black Horsefly
Howdy!
Great Web site! I’m the airport photographer at Cottonwood Airport, Arizona. I happened to be in an open hangar Monday (23rd) afternoon and spotted this black Horsefly on the floor. It was a very hot day and the fly appeared to have trouble flying — in fact, it acted like it was exhausted and really didn’t want to move. I just happened to have my Canon SD950 camera with me that day (I normally have my Nikon D300) and decided to try an get a picture of it, using Macro mode. (After all, I photograph everything else that flies!) I’m somewhat pleased with the result and thought I’d share it with you. If you care to use it, you have my permission. Keep up the good work.
Gordon Goddard
Cottonwood Airport Photographer

Howdy to you too Gordon,
This isn’t a horse fly. It is a Bot Fly. The larvae are internal parasites of rodents, and depending upon the species, other mammals.

Letter 3 – Bot Fly


my cat brought this in to my room, do you know what it is?
Kevin Santana

Hi Kevin,
This is a Bot Fly in the genus Cuterebra. They are endoparasites on various animals and are sometimes called Warble Flies.

Letter 4 – Bot Fly

Big, fat fly
Tue, Oct 28, 2008 at 6:56 PM
October….about a month after Hurricane Ike. North Houston. We live in a densely wooded area. This big boy flew in my front door. At first I thought it was one of those large hornets b/c the buzz of his wings was so loud. He flew about clumsily, then finally flew out the back door.
I didn’t get too close but it looked to be mostly black, some white, maybe a little fuzzy….about the size of a small grape.  Am curious to know the name to find out if it’s common to the area, or perhaps blew in from elsewhere with the recent storm.
Kelly
Houston, Texas (north)

Bot Fly
Bot Fly

Hi Kelly,
This is a Bot Fly.  The larva is an internal parasite that usually parasitizes rodents.

Letter 5 – Bot Fly

Subject: Black bug
Location: Gunnison, Colorado
July 21, 2014 5:08 pm
I found this bug in my home. I thought it was a bee at first but then with a closer look it seemed to be an oversized fly. I looked up horseflies but the bug I found had widest eyes. What is it?
Signature: Audrey

Bot Fly
Bot Fly

Dear Audrey,
There is enough detail in your images for us to determine that this is a Bot Fly in the genus
Cuterebra, the Rodent Bot Flies, but we haven’t the necessary skills, and we suspect there is not enough image detail for even an expert to determine a species identification.

You can compare your image to this individual from BugGuide that also is identified only to the genus level.  According to BugGuide:  “Females typically deposit eggs in the burrows and “runs” of rodent or rabbit hosts. A warm body passing by the eggs causes them to hatch almost instantly and the larvae glom onto the host.

The larvae are subcutaneous (under the skin) parasites of the host. Their presence is easily detected as a tumor-like bulge, often in the throat or neck or flanks of the host. The larvae breathe by everting the anal spiracles out a hole (so they are oriented head-down inside the host). They feed on the flesh of the host, but only rarely does the host die as a result.”

Letter 6 – Bot Fly

Subject: What bug is this?
Location: Maple Grove, MN
July 26, 2014 4:57 pm
Found in our flower garden today. What is this bug?
Signature: William Huybrecht

Bot Fly
Bot Fly

Hi William,
This is a Rodent Bot Fly in the genus
Cuterebra, and they do not feed as adults.  The larvae are subcutaneous parasites on rodents and rabbits.

Letter 7 – Bot Fly

Subject: Bot fly?
Location: Northeast Wisconsin
March 7, 2017 6:44 pm
Thank you in advance for your time.
The other night I woke up with a stinging sensation on the edge of my upper lip. Turn on the light and I see this insect on the back of my hand.
I live in northeast Wisconsin, and this this occurred the first week of March. We had a week over unseasonably warm weather and I had brought some things in from the garage where I believe it hitchhiked in.
Signature: v/r, Luke

Bot Fly

Dear Luke,
We agree that this is a Bot Fly.  To the best of our knowledge, they do not sting nor bite, and we suspect the sensation you felt upon being startled from your sleep relates to the Bot Fly’s legs brushing against your sensitive lips.

Letter 8 – Bot Fly

Subject:  Black bug
Geographic location of the bug:  Southwest Mississippi
Date: 10/03/2018
Time: 04:31 PM EDT
Your letter to the bugman:  What is this thing? Is it dangerous?
How you want your letter signed:  Judy

Bot Fly

Dear Judy,
This is a Bot Fly in the genus
Cuterebra, and it poses no threat to humans.  According to BugGuide:  “Females typically deposit eggs in the burrows and ‘runs’ of rodent or rabbit hosts. A warm body passing by the eggs causes them to hatch almost instantly and the larvae glom onto the host.

The larvae are subcutaneous (under the skin) parasites of the host. Their presence is easily detected as a tumor-like bulge, often in the throat or neck or flanks of the host. The larvae breathe by everting the anal spiracles out a hole (so they are oriented head-down inside the host).

They feed on the flesh of the host, but only rarely does the host die as a result.” We will attempt to contact Jeff Boettner to see if he can provide any species information.

Bot Fly
Thank you! I’ve heard of bot flies….mainly on Dr. Pol. Never thought I’d see one. I appreciate your help.
Judy

Letter 9 – Rodent Bot Fly

Subject:  black spotted white bumblebee?
Geographic location of the bug:  pennsylvania
Date: 07/13/2019
Time: 06:58 PM EDT
Your letter to the bugman:  I spotted this bug after it landed on a blade of grass and hung there behind me. I originally thought it was a carpenter bee because that’s what it sounded like flying by. However, when I turned around and saw what it I was shocked.

It was pretty docile and hung out upside down for about 8 minutes of the same blade of grass, and was calm enough to call several people over to it to check it out. I am so interested to see what this is!
How you want your letter signed:  Lyndsey Mertz

Rodent Bot Fly

Dear Lyndsey,
This is a Rodent Bot Fly in the genus Cuterebra, but we would require an expert opinion regarding the species.  We will attempt to contact Jeff Boettner for assistance in this matter.  According to BugGuide:  “Females typically deposit eggs in the burrows and ‘runs’ of rodent or rabbit hosts. A warm body passing by the eggs causes them to hatch almost instantly and the larvae glom onto the host. The larvae are subcutaneous (under the skin) parasites of the host. Their presence is easily detected as a tumor-like bulge, often in the throat or neck or flanks of the host. The larvae breathe by everting the anal spiracles out a hole (so they are oriented head-down inside the host). They feed on the flesh of the host, but only rarely does the host die as a result.”  this is our first Bot Fly image this season.  They are such unusual looking creatures and they are frequently mistaken for Bumblebees.

Rodent Bot Fly

Letter 10 – Bot Fly

Subject:  Bumble Bee mimicking hoverfly?
Geographic location of the bug:  Central New York
Date: 07/16/2020
Time: 05:55 PM EDT
Your letter to the bugman:  Hello!
I was startled by what I thought was a bumblebee in my bedroom, until I started to scoop it up in a glass and carry it outside, and I realized it was something like a monstrous horsefly. After some internet searching, I see it is a hover fly, but cannot seem to find this species. For scale, the wires are half an inch apart.
Thanks for any help!
How you want your letter signed:  Shoo Fly Don’t Bother Me

Rodent Bot Fly

Dear Shoo Fly,
This is actually a Rodent Bot Fly.

Authors

  • Daniel Marlos

    Bugman aka Daniel Marlos has been identifying bugs since 1999. whatsthatbug.com is his passion project and it has helped millions of readers identify the bug that has been bugging them for over two decades. You can reach out to him through our Contact Page.

  • Piyushi Dhir

    Piyushi is a nature lover, blogger and traveler at heart. She lives in beautiful Canada with her family. Piyushi is an animal lover and loves to write about all creatures.

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