What Eats Water Scorpions? Uncovering Their Natural Predators

folder_openHemiptera, Insecta
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Water scorpions are fascinating creatures that inhabit fresh and stagnant water bodies. As a predator in the aquatic world, they might appear invincible, but nature always finds a way to maintain balance. In this article, you’ll get to know the natural predators of water scorpions and their role in the ecosystem.

These intriguing insects, despite their strong resemblance to terrestrial scorpions, are part of the Hemiptera order. Just like other insects, water scorpions are not without their enemies. Their predators are fundamental in keeping the water scorpion population in check, ensuring that the aquatic ecosystems they inhabit remain balanced and healthy.

Some predators that feast on water scorpions may come as quite a surprise. Familiar creatures such as birds, frogs, and even some large aquatic insects all play a role in the food chain, preying on these unique insects. Read on to find out more about these predators and how they interact with water scorpions in their habitats.

What Are Water Scorpions?

Physical Characteristics

Water scorpions are a fascinating type of insect belonging to the family Nepidae, not to be confused with arachnids such as true scorpions. They have slender, brown bodies, measuring around 30-35 mm in length, with a sharp needle-like appendage at the tip of their abdomen. These insects possess three pairs of jointed legs, with their front two legs modified for grasping prey.

Habitat and Distribution

As their name suggests, water scorpions reside in aquatic environments. They are commonly found in a variety of water habitats such as mud, streams, and ponds across Europe and North America. Brown Water Scorpions (Ranatra fusca) are one example of a species found in both ponds and streams.

Behaviour and Adaptations

Water scorpions are nocturnal hunters, using a unique “ambush” strategy to capture their prey. Their coloration helps them blend in with the surroundings, making them nearly invisible to their prey. Additionally, they have a siphon system that functions like a snorkel, allowing them to breathe as they lay submerged in water to avoid detection.

  • Hunting method: Ambush
  • Movement: Swim or crawl
  • Breathing: Siphon system

Species and Genera

Water scorpions belong to the family Nepidae, which includes over 270 species worldwide. Among these, there are more than 10 species in North America belonging to the genus Ranatra, sometimes referred to as water stick insects. Knowing the diversity within this fascinating family can help you gain a greater understanding and appreciation for these remarkable insects.

So now that you know more about water scorpions, their physical characteristics, habitats, behavior, and species diversity, you’re better prepared to explore their intriguing world. As always, remember to tread lightly and be respectful of the environments where these unique creatures make their home.

What Eats Water Scorpions

Amphibians and Reptiles

Frogs, snakes, and lizards are common predators of water scorpions. For example, in regions like Texas, California, and Arizona, various species of frogs and geckos might feed on these aquatic insects.

Water scorpions are not easily spotted by their predators because they have physical characteristics for camouflage, such as their sharp and slender shape and similar color to their habitats.


Birds like eastern screech owls, elf owls, and great horned owls are known to prey on various bugs, including water scorpions. In South Africa, the southern ground hornbill is another bird species that might feed on water scorpions.


Mammals such as bats and rodents are also known to eat water scorpions. For instance, shrews and grasshopper mice (including northern and southern grasshopper mice) might consume these insects. Meerkats and mongooses could also include water scorpions in their diet.


Invertebrates like spiders, tarantulas, and the Amazonian giant centipede are known predators of water scorpions. These aquatic invertebrates rely on their physical characteristics and habitats to avoid being detected by their predators.

Physical Characteristics

Water scorpions have physical traits that help them blend into their surroundings:

  • Length: Averages from 0.8 to 2 inches (2 to 5 cm)
  • Sharp, slender body shape
  • Coloration: usually brownish or olive-green

Habitat and Distribution

Water scorpions are found in various water habitats like:

  • Mud
  • Streams
  • Ponds

They are commonly found across the United States (Texas, California, Arizona) to South Africa but are not found in Antarctica.

Behaviour and Adaptations

As nocturnal creatures, water scorpions are difficult to detect in their natural habitats. They can swim and crawl underwater, using their snorkel-like appendages for breathing. Their ambush strategy allows them to capture their prey while avoiding predators.


In summary, water scorpions are interesting aquatic creatures that play a role in the ecosystem by acting as both predators and prey. You might be surprised to learn that several different aquatic species feed on water scorpions, helping to keep their population in balance.

For example, larger predatory insects like Giant water bugs can consume water scorpions. Additionally, fish are also known to prey on them, further exemplifying the natural food chain process in aquatic habitats.

It’s essential to understand that water scorpions themselves are predators as well, feeding on small aquatic insects using their mantis-like forelegs to capture their prey. This demonstrates that they play a crucial role in maintaining a balanced and diverse ecosystem.

We hope this article provided you with a greater understanding of the diet and ecological role of water scorpions. By appreciating their importance in the natural world, you can further develop your knowledge of the complex aquatic ecosystems they inhabit.


  • Bugman

    Bugman aka Daniel Marlos has been identifying bugs since 1999. whatsthatbug.com is his passion project and it has helped millions of readers identify the bug that has been bugging them for over two decades. You can reach out to him through our Contact Page.

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  • Piyushi Dhir

    Piyushi is a nature lover, blogger and traveler at heart. She lives in beautiful Canada with her family. Piyushi is an animal lover and loves to write about all creatures.

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Tags: Water Scorpions

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4 Comments. Leave new

  • Thanks for the correction on the ID guys, too much Australia Day celebrating. Yes it had several mites on the underside. I don’t think I’d like to be stabbed by that hypodermic they have for a mouth either.

  • The mites are probably parasitic larvae in the water-mite family Hydrachnidae, genus Hydrachna. Species in this genus are unusual for water-mites in that the larvae parasitize aquatic Hemiptera.

  • This page has been very helpful, just found one of these in my middle dam and wanted to find out what it was, thanks for sharing!


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