Tailless Whip Scorpion Life Cycle: Discover Their Fascinating Journey

The tailless whip scorpion is a remarkable arachnid species that belongs to the order Amblypygi. These nocturnal invertebrates exhibit fascinating behavior during their life cycle. Unlike typical scorpions, these arachnids have no venomous stinger and are harmless to humans, yet their unique appearance and impressive hunting techniques make them an interesting subject for study.

In the wild, you may encounter these peculiar creatures in tropical and subtropical regions. They prefer to reside in dark, humid habitats such as under rocks, logs, and tree bark. As nocturnal predators, they emerge at night to hunt for insects and other small invertebrates.

During their life cycle, tailless whip scorpions experience several molts, a process involving shedding their exoskeleton for growth. Mating is also an intriguing spectacle, as the male deposits a spermatophore which the female retrieves to fertilize her eggs. The female later carries the eggs in a sac beneath her abdomen until they hatch into nymphs, which will cling to her body for the first few molts before becoming independent.

Physical Description

General Appearance

The tailless whip scorpion, or Amblypygid, has a unique appearance that sets it apart from other arachnids. Its body is flat and crab-like, with a size ranging from 19 to 25 inches. The color of an Amblypygid can vary, but typically they are brown or black, which helps them blend into their surroundings.

Special Features

Carapace and Eyes

The carapace of a tailless whip scorpion is a protective covering for its body. The eyes of these creatures are quite unusual. They have a pair of large, centrally located eyes and a few smaller eyes on each side. These sensory organs enable the Amblypygid to have good vision in the dark.

Legs and Whips

What’s most striking about the tailless whip scorpion are its legs. It has ten legs in total, but the first two are very long, thin, and whip-like. These are referred to as “whips” and serve as sensory feelers for the creature. The other eight legs are used for walking and resemble those of a crab.

  • Whip-like sensory organs
  • Eight crab-like walking legs

In conclusion, the tailless whip scorpion has a unique and fascinating appearance. With its flat, crab-like body, various eyes, and elongated whips serving as sensory feelers, it’s truly a remarkable creature to study and observe.

Habitat and Distribution

Native Habitats

Tailless whip scorpions, or amblypygids, are primarily found in habitats that are dark and moist, like forests and caves. They prefer spaces with plenty of hiding spots, such as rocks or leaf litter. These unique arachnids thrive in both tropical and subtropical environments. In these habitats, you can find them clinging to tree trunks or hiding under loose bark.

Geographical Distribution

Tailless whip scorpions are found across different parts of the world such as Africa, South America, and Asia. They have adapted to various climates and environments, making them quite versatile in their distribution. Some examples of their geographical locations include:

  • Central and South America, where they are commonly found in tropical forests
  • The African continent, with a high concentration in the equatorial regions, favoring both forests and savannas
  • Various regions across Asia, like the tropical rainforests of Southeast Asia and the subtropical regions of the Middle East

In summary, tailless whip scorpions favor moist and dark habitats with hiding places like forests, caves, and under rocks. They can be found in tropical and subtropical areas of Africa, South America, and Asia, demonstrating their adaptability to different environments.

Behavior and Lifestyle

Diet and Predation

As a tailless whip scorpion, your diet mainly consists of insects. While you might look like a dangerous predator, you actually don’t have any venom in your graspers. You rely on your large pedipalps to catch and crush your prey. If you were to be kept as a pet, your exotic and unique appearance would attract attention, but you’d need a consistent supply of insects like crickets for feeding.

Movements and Activity Patterns

Your lifestyle as a whip spider certainly makes you an interesting arachnid. Being nocturnal, you are most active at night when you hunt for your prey. Your movement style is smooth and stealthy, perfect for sneaking up on unsuspecting insects. One of your most extraordinary features is your ability to detect vibrations through your long, whip-like front legs. This helps you locate your prey in the dark.

Here are some characteristics of tailless whip scorpions:

  • No venom
  • Large pedipalps for catching prey
  • Nocturnal
  • Sensitive to vibrations

In comparison, here’s a table with some differences between whip spiders and other arachnids:

Feature Whip Spider Other Arachnids
Venomous No Yes (some)
Diet Insects Varied
Activity Pattern Nocturnal Varied

Reproduction and Life Cycle

Mating and Courtship

When it’s time for the tailless whip scorpion to reproduce, you can observe a fascinating mating ritual. The male and female participate in a courtship dance where they gently touch one another with their long, whip-like legs. Males deposit a spermatophore, which is a packet of sperm, on the ground. The female then picks it up to fertilize her eggs.

Eggs and Juvenile Development

Once the eggs are fertilized, the female carries them in a brood sac underneath her abdomen. She will protect her eggs until they hatch into tiny nymphs, which closely resemble their adult forms but are smaller and more fragile.

  • The nymphs undergo several stages of molting to reach maturity.
  • Each molting stage is called an instar.

The life cycle of a tailless whip scorpion includes:

  • Lifespan: The specific lifespan of the tailless whip scorpion is not well-documented, but many arachnids can live for several years.
  • Mating: As mentioned earlier, the courtship dance leads to the transfer of sperm from the male to the female.
  • Eggs: Following fertilization, the female carries her brood sac until the eggs hatch.
  • Nymphs: These hatchlings will molt several times before reaching full maturity.

By following this process, the tailless whip scorpion exhibits a fascinating and complex life cycle within its intriguing ecosystem.

Keeping Tailless Whip Scorpions as Pets

Enclosure and Environment Conditions

Tailless whip scorpions, also known as whip spiders, require a specific environment to thrive. A terrarium or tank is necessary for housing these arachnids. Keep these factors in mind:

  • Tank size: A 5-10 gallon tank is suitable for a single whip spider but consider a larger one when housing multiple individuals.
  • Substrate: A mixture of coco fiber and peat moss, with a 3-4 inch layer is ideal for their habitat.
  • Temperature: Maintain a temperature of 70-80°F (21-27°C).
  • Humidity: Aim for humidity levels around 70-80%.

To ensure good ventilation, provide some air holes and avoid stagnant air. Lighting is not essential, but a dim or indirect light source is beneficial.

Care and Handling

Whip spiders are interesting pets for those who appreciate unique creatures. Here’s what you need to know about their care and handling:

  • Handling: It’s best to avoid handling them often. They are harmless but can be fast and agile.
  • Feeding: Feed your whip spider crickets or other small insects, approximately 1-2 times a week.
  • Water: Provide a shallow water dish for drinking.

Remember to clean the enclosure regularly, removing uneaten prey and waste.

Breed Suitability

Tailless whip scorpions might not be suitable for everyone. Here are some things to consider:

  • Fear factor: These arachnids may appear dangerous, but they pose no threat to humans. Still, the fear factor might be intimidating for some people.
  • Friendly demeanor: Despite their appearance, whip spiders are harmless and docile creatures.
  • Beginner level: They are not ideal pets for absolute beginners due to their specific care requirements and the defensive nature they may display when stressed.

In conclusion, tailless whip scorpions can be fascinating pets for those who appreciate exotic creatures and are willing to devote time and effort to provide them with the proper care. Their captivating appearance and behavior make them an exceptional addition to any enthusiast’s collection.

Other Noteworthy Species

While discussing tailless whip scorpions, it’s essential to mention other fascinating species within the family:

  • Damon variegatus: This species is known for its unique appearance and long, whip-like antennae. You might find it interesting that Damon variegatus is often seen wandering on trees and other vegetation.

  • Damon diadema: A close relative to Damon variegatus, this species also boasts a striking appearance with tufts of hair on its legs. It’s a popular choice for pet owners who find the world of arachnids fascinating.

  • Damon medius: This tailless whip scorpion is slightly smaller than its relatives, but don’t let its size fool you. Its agility and hunting skills are just as impressive.

  • Phrynus marginemaculatus: As an amblypygid, this species presents unique features such as its strong front legs and powerful pincers adapted for capturing prey. Its appearance earned it a role in the iconic “Harry Potter” movies.

Here’s a comparison table to help you understand some distinctive characteristics of these species:

Species Appearance Habitat
Damon variegatus Long antennae Trees and vegetation
Damon diadema Tufts of hair on legs Tropical forests
Damon medius Smaller in size Leaf litter, rocks and tree trunks
Phrynus marginemaculatus Powerful pincers Caves and tropical forests

It’s worth noting that all these species share important traits:

  • They belong to the order Amblypygi, a group of arachnids also known as whip spiders or tailless whip scorpions.
  • They are nocturnal, meaning they’re active during the night.
  • They have large eyes to help them visualize their environment better.

In addition to whip scorpions, you might also find the vinegaroon fascinating. This creature, which is an arachnid but not a tailless whip scorpion, uses its whip-like tail to spray a vinegar-like substance when threatened. The species is scientifically known as Mastigoproctus giganteus and is found in parts of the United States and Mexico.

To sum up, the diverse world of whip scorpions and related arachnids offers intriguing species with unique characteristics that can spark the curiosity of any arthropod enthusiast.

Common Misconceptions and Myths

There are several misconceptions and myths related to tailless whip scorpions that may lead to confusion and fear. One such belief is that these creatures are highly venomous and dangerous. However, tailless whip scorpions are actually harmless, as they do not possess venom glands or a stinger.

Many people assume that all scorpions are capable of delivering a painful bite. While this is true for some species, the tailless whip scorpion does not have the ability to bite humans. Instead, they use their spiny and powerful pedipalps to capture and hold prey.

Here is a comparison table highlighting the differences between common myths and actual facts about tailless whip scorpions:

Myth Fact
Venomous No venom glands
Dangerous Harmless to humans
Bite humans Incapable of biting

A few more misconceptions about tailless whip scorpions include:

  • They are closely related to true scorpions. In reality, they belong to a separate order called Amblypygi.
  • They have poor vision. Contrarily, whip scorpions have well-developed eyes and can see in low light conditions.
  • They are aggressive hunters. While they do hunt, their primary behaviors involve scavenging and ambushing prey.

Remember, understanding these facts can help you appreciate the unique and fascinating role of tailless whip scorpions in the ecosystem, without unwarranted fear or prejudice.

Reader Emails

Over the years, our website, whatsthatbug.com has received hundreds of letters and some interesting images asking us about these insects. Scroll down to have a look at some of them.

Letter 1 – Tailless Whipscorpion

 

Tailless Whipscorpion from Chamela, Mexico
Hi.
After searching the web to find out what bug I saw the other night I came across your site that had good pictures of the Tailless Whipscorpion and that made me pretty sure that what I saw was just that. The thing that confuses me is that the locals say that it’s poisonous. A girl at the house where I live told me that she got bitten three years ago. It had hidden in her shorts and when she put them on it bit her. If you get stung you will loose your vision and sense of hearing. If you don’t get and antidote within 30 minutes you will die. Since you say it’s harmless I guess it must have been something else that bitten her. What could that be that kill you in 30 minutes and disables your eyes and hearing? I attached a picture of the Tailless Whipscorpion for your site. Best Regards
Niclas Skold

Hi Niclas,
While we were in Iscamilpa Mexico for the total solar eclipse, we were amused by a sign outside the church warning the locals to stay indoors because scorpions would fall from the sky. While there are many poisonous creatures in Mexico that will sting and bite, the Tailless Whipscorpion is not one. Their fierce appearance belies their harmlessness.

Letter 2 – Tailless Whipscorpion

 

Spiderlike creature
Good day,
Could you help me with this thing. We found it on the wall and it seemed it was stalking a gecko. One of the pairs of legs are very long and it has arms with scorpion like claws. Thanks
Regards
Louis Marais

Hi Louis,
Unless you are a gecko or other small creature, the Tailless Whipscorpion is harmless. They are shy nocturnal hunters that are usually found in warm humid locations, but they are also found in warm arid areas.

Letter 3 – Tailless Whipscorpion

 

Tailless Whip Scorpion
Thought you might like this picture of a Tailless Whip Scorpion which is living in my garage. I live in Peoria, Arizona.
Nicky.

Hi Nicky,
Thanks for sending us you great photograph. We are quite certain that most people who encounter Tailless Whipscorpions have a difficult time believing they are totally harmless. These shy creatures are nocturnal predators.

Letter 4 – Tailless Whipscorpion

 

caribbean spider
Hi!
I love your site–I use it to identify caterpillars all the time. My boyfriend and his brother found this spider in a tunnel in some ruins of an old sugar plantation on St. Kitts W.I. With legs, it was roughly 4 or 5 inches in diameter (and it had plenty of company!) It looks kind of like a giant crab spider to me, but the "pincers" in ours are quite thick and armored and have spikes on them. Can you help? Thanks!
Fawn

Hi Fawn,
This is not a spider, but a Tailless Whipscorpion, a shy and harmless creature unless you are a small edible critter like a cricket.

Letter 5 – Tailless Whipscorpion

 

Here’s an odd one
I found this critter on a stucco wall in the vicinity of Piestewa Peak in Phoenix, Arizona. I am quite sure it’s an insect, as the very long appendages appear on close inspection to be antennae. The size of the body is about 3⁄4” long. The antennae are about 3 inches long! The body is very flat, and the shape of the head is just bizarre. In my 56 years living in the Phoenix area I have never seen anything remotely like this creature. Thank you,
Rook Younger
Phoenix, Arizona

Hi Rook
This is not an insect, but an Arachnid. It is a harmless Tailless Whipscorpion. They are not uncommon in humid tropics (though they are also found in arid Arizona), but as they are shy nocturnal hunters, they often go unnoticed.

Letter 6 – Tailless Whipscorpion

 

This Creature Gives Me The Creeps
Hi Bug Man
I’m trying to get some info on my co-habitants. Whenever I go to the shed, I always find one wandering around a corner. Can you give me more information about this creature?
Thanx in advance,
Qiniso Mdletshe

Hi Qiniso,
Even though they look creepy, Tailless Whipscorpions are perfectly harmless.

Letter 7 – Tailless Whipscorpion

 

cave critter in Belize
Hi:
We saw this creature in a cave in Belize. The guide said it was a type of scorpion but I have not been able to identify it. Do you know what it is?
Thanks!
Tamara
San Pedro, Belize

Hi Tamara,
This is not a true scorpion, but a Tailless Whipscorpion. They are harmless.

Letter 8 – Tailless Whipscorpion

 

Subject:  what’s this bug?????
Geographic location of the bug:  Baja Mexico, East Cape
Date: 03/21/2018
Time: 03:15 PM EDT
Your letter to the bugman:  I saw 2 of these strange bugs.  They were in dark corners, on concrete surfaces, long antenna (2) and front crap/scorpion like legs as well as spider legs. The picture is after I sprayed the spider and moved it.  It’s a little curled up here.  Sorry for the shadows.
How you want your letter signed:  Kathleen

Tailless Whipscorpion

Dear Kathleen,
This was a harmless Tailless Whipscorpion, a shy nocturnal predator that will help keep your residence free of unwanted pests like Cockroaches.  We try to educate the web browsing public about the marvelous creatures that crawl about, so we created an Unnecessary Carnage tag long ago to draw attention to creatures that have been needless dispatched because they looked scary.

Daniel,
Thank you for your response.  I felt so bad ending this bug’s life, but until I was sure of what it was, I was rather scared.  I needed that a day before in the dark corner I found it as there was a huge cockroach that came from that spot.
Hmmmm… we learn as we go.  I will share the information with my neighbors so they know to just move the intimidating whipscorpion and not harm it.
Thank you!!!
Kathleen

Thanks for the update Kathleen,
We should probably clarify that though they are not venomous, Tailless Whipscorpions are predators and they do have rather powerful mandibles, meaning they might bite if carelessly handled, but they are shy and not aggressive around people, so provided you don’t try to pick one up, they pose no threat to you.

Authors

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  • Bugman

    Bugman aka Daniel Marlos has been identifying bugs since 1999. whatsthatbug.com is his passion project and it has helped millions of readers identify the bug that has been bugging them for over two decades. You can reach out to him through our Contact Page.

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  • Piyushi Dhir

    Piyushi is a nature lover, blogger and traveler at heart. She lives in beautiful Canada with her family. Piyushi is an animal lover and loves to write about all creatures.

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