The tailless whip scorpion, an intriguing and somewhat misunderstood arachnid, has long been a source of curiosity for many. Despite its appearance, it actually belongs to a separate order called Amblypygi, making it a distant cousin of spiders and scorpions rather than a true spider itself.
These unique creatures are characterized by long, thin, whip-like front legs, which they use for sensing their environment. They also possess spiny and powerful pedipalps, enabling them to capture and hold onto prey with ease. While somewhat similar in appearance and closely related, it’s important to note that tailless whip scorpions and spiders belong to separate orders within the arachnid class.
Tailless Whip Scorpion Overview
Tailless whip scorpions, also known as Amblypygi, are part of the arachnid family, just like spiders and scorpions. All arachnids share certain characteristics:
- Two main body parts: cephalothorax and abdomen
- Four pairs of legs
- No antennae or wings
Distinct Differences Between Spiders and Scorpions
Although tailless whip scorpions share similarities with spiders and scorpions, there are key differences that set them apart.
Tailless Whip Scorpion Features
- Flat body
- Ten legs, with the first pair being long, thin, and whip-like
- Spiny and powerful pedipalps, adapted for sensory and predatory use
- Two main body parts: cephalothorax and abdomen
- Eight legs
- Spinning silk to create webs or catch prey
- Long, segmented tail ending in a venomous stinger
- Large pincers called pedipalps
|Feature||Tailless Whip Scorpion||Spider||Scorpion|
|Number of Legs||10||8||8|
*Note: Some spiders are venomous, but venom is delivered through their fangs.
For example, a tailless whip scorpion might use its whip-like legs and powerful pedipalps to hunt and capture prey, while a spider relies on its web or silk for similar purposes.
In conclusion, although tailless whip scorpions, spiders, and scorpions are all classified as arachnids, they have distinct characteristics and features that set them apart from each other.
Size and Appearance
- Tailless whip scorpions have a flat body
- Their size can range from 19 to 25 inches (48 to 63 cm) in some species
- They are reddish or brown in color
Legs and Pedipalps
- Possess a total of 10 legs
- First two legs are thin and whip-like
- Pedipalps (pincer-bearing front arms) are spiny and powerful for both sensory and predatory use
Sensory Organs and Eyes
- Chelicerae: a pair of mouthparts for feeding and self-defense
- Eyes: usually two pairs for basic light perception
- First legs: elongated and adapted for sensing the environment
Comparison between tailless whip scorpions and spiders:
|Feature||Tailless Whip Scorpions||Spiders|
|Size||19 to 25 inches||Varies|
|Color||Reddish or brown||Varies|
|Pedipalps||Spiny and powerful||Varies|
|Sensory Organs||First legs||Various types|
Overall, tailless whip scorpions may resemble spiders in some characteristics, but they have unique features, such as their whip-like legs and spiny pedipalps, that set them apart from their arachnid relatives.
Habitat and Behavior
Tropical and Subtropical Environments
Tailless whip scorpions are typically found in tropical and subtropical environments. They reside in humid environments, which support various species of these arachnids. Some common genera include Phrynus and Paraphrynus.
Caves and Rocks
These creatures, also known as Amblypygids, prefer to live in caves and rocky areas. They often hide in crevices, which provide them with shelter and protection.
- Examples: Some whip scorpions, like the ones found in El Yunque National Forest, can grow quite large (19 to 25 inches/48 to 63 cm)
Tailless whip scorpions are nocturnal, meaning they are active during the night. This behavior helps them avoid predators and hunt for prey more efficiently. Since they are related to spiders, these arachnids possess similar characteristics.
|Feature||Tailless Whip Scorpions||Spiders|
|Legs||8 walking legs + 2 whiplike front legs||8 legs|
|Habitat||Tropical/subtropical humid environments, caves, and rocks||Various habitats including homes and gardens|
|Activity||Nocturnal||Mostly nocturnal, but some diurnal species|
Note: Both tailless whip scorpions and spiders are members of the class Arachnida, making them closely related.
Feeding and Diet
Tailless whip scorpions are carnivorous arachnids with a diverse diet, often consisting of:
- Crickets: A common choice for those in captivity.
- Frogs: They occasionally feed on small frogs.
- Worms: Found underground, worms are a nutritious option.
- Large insects: More difficult to catch but quite satisfying.
- Crustaceans: These arachnids can consume small crustaceans.
- Other small animals: In exceptional cases, they may eat little animals.
The tailless whip scorpion employs several hunting tactics:
- Whip-like legs: They use their long, thin front legs to locate and capture prey.
- Spiny pedipalps: These powerful pincers help seize and hold the prey in place.
- Ambush: Whip scorpions patiently wait for the prey to approach, then quickly grab them.
Comparison of Tailless Whip Scorpion Prey Preferences
|Prey||Abundance||Ease of Catch||Nutritional Value|
|Other small animals||Rare||Difficult||High|
The tailless whip scorpion’s diet varies depending on their environment, and they adapt their hunting strategies to best suit the type of prey they encounter. With their unique combination of whip-like legs and powerful pedipalps, these arachnids are highly effective hunters.
Reproduction and Lifespan
The tailless whip scorpion’s mating process involves the male depositing a spermatophore on the ground. The female then picks it up and inserts it into her genital opening. This is how fertilization occurs.
Growth and Molting
- Young tailless whip scorpions hatch from eggs.
- They grow and develop through a series of molts.
- Each molt allows them to become larger and closer to their adult form.
Molting is an essential part of a whip scorpion’s life, as it helps facilitate growth and development.
Tailless whip scorpions have a fairly long lifespan for an arachnid, but the exact number of years they live can vary. There is limited information available about their lifespan in the wild, but it is believed to be several years.
|Feature||Tailless Whip Scorpion||Spider|
|Mating Process||Spermatophore transfer||Direct copulation|
|Growth and Molting||Multiple molts||Multiple molts|
|Sexual Dimorphism||Limited||Common in some species|
In comparison to spiders, tailless whip scorpions have a slightly different mating process and limited sexual dimorphism. Both species rely on molting for growth and development. Longevity varies among different types of spiders, with some species living only a few months, while others can live for several years.
Tailless Whip Scorpions as Pets
Caring and Handling
Tailless whip scorpions are unique and fascinating pets. They require gentle handling to avoid damage to their delicate legs and body.
- Interesting appearance and behavior
- Low maintenance compared to some other exotic pets
- Fragile, handle with care
- Potential aggressive behavior
Feeding and Housing Requirements
Feeding tailless whip scorpions is quite simple. Offer them a variety of insects, such as crickets and roaches, every few days. Make sure the prey is not too large for your pet.
Housing requirements include:
- A well-ventilated terrarium (minimum size: 10 gallons)
- Substrate: a mix of peat moss, coconut fiber, and damp sphagnum moss
- Humidity: around 70-80%
- Hiding places: cork bark, rocks, or artificial caves
|Feature||Tailless Whip Scorpion||Spider|
|Legs||8+2 modified legs||8|
|Web building||No||Yes (most types)|
|Housing requirements||Humid and dark||Varies|
In conclusion, tailless whip scorpions can be enjoyable pets for those interested in exotic creatures. With proper care and housing, they can thrive in captivity.
- Native to Tanzania
- Size: 7-10 cm leg span
Damon variegatus is a tailless whip scorpion species native to Tanzania. These whip scorpions have a leg span of around 7-10 cm, making them a relatively small species in comparison to others.
- Native to East Africa
- Size: up to 20 cm leg span
Damon diadema, another popular tailless whip scorpion species, is native to East Africa. With a leg span of up to 20 cm, it’s considerably larger than Damon variegatus.
- Native to Costa Rica
- Size: 6-10 cm body length
Acanthophrynus coronatus, found in Costa Rica, is known for its striking appearance. These tailless whip scorpions have a body length of 6-10 cm, with long, thin, whip-like legs.
- Native to the United States and Mexico
- Size: up to 6 cm body length
Paraphrynus mexicanus is the only whip scorpion species found in the United States, as well as in Mexico. With a body length of up to 6 cm, it is one of the smaller species in this group.
|Damon Variegatus||Tanzania||7-10 cm leg span|
|Damon Diadema||East Africa||up to 20 cm leg span|
|Acanthophrynus Coronatus||Costa Rica||6-10 cm body length|
|Paraphrynus Mexicanus||US, Mexico||up to 6 cm body length|
Role in Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire
The tailless whip scorpion gained popularity and notoriety due to its appearance in the movie Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire. In the film, it was featured as a magical creature called a Blast-Ended Skrewt, known for its dangerous capabilities and frightening appearance.
Influence on the Vinegaroon
Tailless whip scorpions share comparative characteristics with the vinegaroon, another arachnid that has impacted culture, named for its ability to squirt acetic acid (similar to vinegar) as a defense mechanism.
Here is a comparison table highlighting the differences and similarities between the tailless whip scorpion and the vinegaroon:
|Feature||Tailless Whip Scorpion||Vinegaroon|
|Number of legs||10 legs||8 legs|
|Body shape||Flat body||Bulkier body|
|Pincers||Spiny and powerful||Less developed, smaller|
|Defense mechanism||N/A||Spraying acetic acid (vinegar)|
Some shared characteristics include:
- Both are arachnids
- Neither are true scorpions
- Both have a similar appearance with pincers and elongated front legs
In summary, tailless whip scorpions have played a role in pop culture, notably through the Harry Potter series, and share similarities with the vinegaroon, an arachnid known for its unique defense mechanism.
Over the years, our website, whatsthatbug.com has received hundreds of letters and some interesting images asking us about these insects. Scroll down to have a look at some of them.
Letter 1 – Tailless Whipscorpion
Hello, my name is Kevin and I’m working in Nicaragua and came across this interesting bug, which appeared to be some sort of spider. I examined it under a microscope and it has fangs like a spider and two mandible like appendages. Have any Ideas?
Kevin L. Miller
Though it might look fierce, the Tailless Whipscorpion is a harmless predator.
Letter 2 – Tailless Whipscorpion
Location: Needles, CA.
April 18, 2012 4:40 pm
A friend in the Mojave Desert, near the Colorado River, snapped this shot of some kind of creature over his door. We’ve had little luck identifying it. Some said a pseudoscorpion but I’ve caught them and this is not one of them as far as I can tell. Almost looks like a type of beetle.
Tailless Whipscorpions in the order Amblypygi are shy, nocturnal predators. Since they lack venom, they are perfectly harmless though they might seem frightening. See BugGuide for more information.
Letter 3 – Tailless Whipscorpion
Large black crab spider?
Location: South Mountin Foothills, Phx AZ
May 4, 2012 8:30 am
This creature is the second one I’ve seen in the last couple of weeks, both were on the ground, and near a threshold, they dart out then freeze when the door is opened, and are nocturnal. Its about two inches across it antenna (front legs?)
Signature: Kim D
Though this creature does move like a Crab, it is not a Crab Spider, nor even a true Spider, but rather a member of its own order. It is a Tailless Whipscorpion, and it is related to both spiders and scorpions, but unlike the former, they do not possess venom. They are shy, harmless, nocturnal hunters that will help keep the cockroach populations under control.
There are small roaches in the yard, so that would explain their presence. Glad to hear they aren’t venomous, they can hunt in the yard all they want.
Letter 4 – Tailless Whipscorpion
Subject: Insect in Mexico
Location: Tulum, Mexico
June 3, 2012 11:15 am
We saw this bug at night in Tulum, Mexico. It appeared on the wall outside our cabana. It doesn’t appear to have wings but is quite horrific in my opinion. This is the best picture I could get at night without getting too close. Do you know what kind of bug this is?
Signature: Danielle Panchuk
Though it is fierce looking, this Tailless Whipscorpion is actually harmless to humans as it lack venom, unlike the true scorpions and spider to which it is related. It is possible to sustain a bite from a Tailless Whipscorpion, but only if one tries to carelessly handle it. Tailless Whipscorpions are nocturnal hunters that feed on Cockroaches and other undesirable creatures that are found indoors in warmer climates where the Tailless Whipscorpions are found. In Mexico, the Tailless Whipscorpion is commonly called a Cancle. We will be postdating your letter to go live during our absence from the office later this month.
Thanks for your response. It’s good to know the bug we saw was not dangerous in any way and actually doing some good. I’ve looked at some other pictures posted on your site of Tailless Whipscorpiond and the one we saw seems quite a bit larger than those. It’s body was about 7-8 inches long.
Letter 5 – Tailless Whipscorpion
Subject: What is this ??
Location: Mesa, Arizona
July 21, 2012 1:25 pm
I took this pic around 9pm recently in Mesa, AZ in my driveway. This critter was about 4” across, has six legs and two very long antennae that extend about an inch or so past it’s leg width.
At first I thought it was a vinegaroon, or whip scorpion, but after seeing those on Google, I don’t think so…
Signature: P. Aten
Dear P. Aten,
There are two different orders of Whipscorpions. The Vinegaroons or Whipscorpions are in the order Uropogi which you can find on BugGuide. The members, though similar, are quite different from your specimen. You have submitted a photograph of a Tailless Whipscorpion in the order Amblypygi, which is also represented on BugGuide. Both orders are without venom and they are consequently harmless to people.
Letter 6 – Tailless Whipscorpion
Subject: strange 6 legged bug with barbed pincers
Location: akumal mexico suspected picture taken near austin texas
June 23, 2013 9:39 pm
i came home from akumal mexico and cleaned my water shoes and this odd bug came out. my friends at texas parks and wildlife had never seen anything like it
tailless whip scorpion was as close as i found
Signature: krazee fave
Dear krazee fave,
You are correct that this is a Tailless Whipscorpion. We cannot say for certain that you did not bring it back from Akumal, Mexico, but it does resemble a species, Phrynus operculatus, that is found in Texas according to BugGuide.
Letter 7 – Tailless Whipscorpion
Subject: Tailless Whip Scorpion
Location: Saint James City, FL
October 27, 2014 10:24 am
Can you tell me the Genus and species of this tailless whip scorpion? I found it underneath a rotting slash pine log, near a salt marsh at Pine Island Preserve at Matlacha Pass, in Saint James City, Florida. I was also wondering if there is a resource describing the distribution and life history of this species. Thanks!
Signature: Conservation Foundation of the Gulf Coast
Dear Conservation Foundation of the Gulf Coast,
According to BugGuide, Phrynus marginemaculatus “is the only tailless whipscorpion known to occur in Florida.” We will attempt to find you more information.
Letter 8 – Tailless Whipscorpion
Location: Central Arizona
November 14, 2015 3:27 pm
Found on a wall after dusk. Have seen these several times.
This is not a true Scorpion, but as its common name implies, this Tailless Whipscorpion is classfied, along with Spiders and Scorpions, in the class Arachnida, but they are all divided up at the order level of taxonomy. Unlike Spiders and Scorpions, Tailless Whipscorpions lack venom, so they are not considered dangerous to humans. They do, however, possess powerful mandibles that they use to crush and chew prey, and if they are carelessly handled, a painful bite may result. They are shy, nocturnal hunters that generally flee from humans if encountered.