The Hercules beetle and Rhinoceros beetle are two fascinating and widely known insects due to their unique appearances and impressive sizes. Both belonging to the Scarabaeidae family, these beetles exhibit some interesting behaviors and characteristics that set them apart from other insects.
The Hercules beetle, found in Central and South America, can reach a length of 7 inches with large horns that are approximately 1/3 of their body length. Males use these horns to compete for mating opportunities. On the other hand, the Rhinoceros beetle is generally smaller, with a length of about 1.2-2.4 inches and can be found in various regions around the world.
While both beetles boast impressive horns, one notable difference is the habitat in which each species thrives. The Hercules beetle is typically found in pockets of montane and lowland rainforests of countries like Brazil, Ecuador, Colombia, and Peru, while the Rhinoceros beetle is more widespread and can be found in diverse environments, including Hawaii and parts of the United States.
Hercules Beetle vs Rhinoceros Beetle
Hercules beetles and rhinoceros beetles belong to the same family, but they have some differences in their appearance. Males of both species are known for their large horns, which are used for fighting and attracting mates. However, the morphology of these horns differs:
- Hercules beetle: Males have long, curved horns that can be about 1/3 of their body length, with some even longer than their body.
- Rhinoceros beetle: Males have a shorter, characteristic horn projecting from the head in both males and females.
In terms of color, Hercules beetles are usually greenish-gray with brown to black spots, while rhinoceros beetles are brownish-black.
|Long (1/3 of body length or longer)
|Greenish-gray with brown to black spots
Range and Habitat
The range and habitat of these beetle species also differ:
- Hercules beetle: The Eastern Hercules beetle (Dynastes tityus) is found in the United States, while the Dynastes hercules can be found in Central and South America.
- Rhinoceros beetle: The Coconut Rhinoceros beetle is an invasive species in Hawaii and is native to Southeast Asia.
Both species thrive in forested areas, but the rhinoceros beetle is more likely to be found near coconut trees, as this is a primary food source.
In summary, the Hercules beetle and rhinoceros beetle share similar features such as large horns and strong exoskeletons but differ in horn morphology, color, and geographic range.
Life Cycle and Development
Eggs and Larvae
Hercules and rhinoceros beetles both undergo complete metamorphosis, consisting of egg, larval, pupal, and adult stages. For the Hercules beetle, the egg incubation period averages 27.7 days. It then goes through three larval instars, completing development in 50 days.
During the pupal stage, both beetles transition from larvae to adults. The pupal stage varies in length depending on factors like species, temperature, and humidity.
Adulthood and Mating
Males, in both species, are larger than females and have unique features. The Hercules beetle has horns about 1/3 of its body length, while the rhinoceros beetle showcases a prominent horn. Males use these horns to battle over mating rights.
|Horns ~1/3 body length
|Smaller, no horns
|Smaller, no horns
|50 days, across 3 instars
In conclusion, the Hercules and rhinoceros beetles share similarities in their life cycles, both undergoing metamorphosis with eggs, larval development, pupation, and adulthood. Males exhibit unique features for mating competition, while females are generally smaller and lack distinct features.
Diet and Feeding Habits
Both Hercules beetles and Rhinoceros beetles belong to the family Scarabaeidae. However, they have different feeding habits. The Hercules beetle (Dynastes hercules) primarily feeds on fruit and tree sap. On the other hand, the Rhinoceros beetle (Oryctes rhinoceros) prefers a diet of palm tree materials and sap.
Here are some key features of their diets:
- Hercules beetles: fruit and tree sap
- Rhinoceros beetles1: palm tree materials and sap
During the larval stage, feeding habits of these beetles change. Both types of larvae are saproxylophagous, meaning they feed on rotting wood. This stage is crucial for their growth and development.
|Larval Stage Diet
|Hercules Beetle (HB)
|Fruit and tree sap
|Rhinoceros Beetle (RB)
|Palm tree materials and sap
To summarize, adult Hercules beetles thrive on fruit and tree sap, while Rhinoceros beetles consume palm materials and sap. In the larval stage, both species depend on rotting wood for sustenance.
Habitat and Distribution
The Hercules beetle (Dynastes hercules) and the rhinoceros beetle (such as Oryctes rhinoceros) are part of the subfamily Dynastinae, which includes around 1500 species and 225 genera of beetles. The habitat and distribution of these two beetles vary depending on the species.
- Hercules beetles are primarily found in Central and South America, as well as parts of the West Indies.
- Rhinoceros beetles can be found on every continent except Antarctica. Some species like the eastern rhinoceros beetle are native to the United States.
Both Hercules and rhinoceros beetles have specific habitats they prefer:
- Hercules beetles thrive in tropical and subtropical regions, requiring warm and humid environments.
- Rhinoceros beetles, such as the coconut rhinoceros beetle, prefer regions with economically important wild and plantation palms, since they feed on these plants.
|Central & South America, West Indies
|Tropical and subtropical regions
|Every continent except Antarctica, United States
|Regions with economically important palms
In summary, the Hercules beetle and the rhinoceros beetle have different geographical ranges and preferred habitats. Both belong to the subfamily Dynastinae, but while the Hercules beetle is primarily found in Central and South America, the rhinoceros beetle has a wider distribution. Their preferred habitats also differ, with Hercules beetles inhabiting tropical regions and rhinoceros beetles being closely associated with palm trees.
Threats and Predators
Hercules and rhinoceros beetles, both belonging to the scarab beetle family, face several natural predators in their environment. Some well-known predators include:
- Spiders: These invertebrates prey on both adult beetles and their grubs.
- Birds: Highly attracted to the beetles’ large size and black spots, they target them as food sources.
- Other insects: Insects such as wasps and ants can also attack grubs.
Notably, the beetles’ elytra and pincers serve as natural defense mechanisms, allowing them to ward off predators. However, their six legs can be vulnerable and limiting in terms of mobility.
As members of the scarab beetle family, Hercules and rhinoceros beetles play a crucial role in ecology by decomposing organic waste. Despite this, human interaction often poses threats to these beetles:
- Habitat loss: Urbanization, farming, and deforestation negatively impact the beetles’ natural habitats.
- Pesticides: Toxic chemicals introduced to the environment can harm or kill these beetles.
- Collection: Some individuals capture these beetles for personal collections, leading to a decline in population.
Comparison of Hercules Beetle and Rhinoceros Beetle:
|Males can reach up to 7 inches in length
|Adults can grow between 1.2-2.4 inches in length
|Males have long horns equal to 1/3 body size
|Both males and females have a distinctive horn
In summary, these fascinating beetles face a variety of predators and threats, both from nature and human interactions, reminding us of the importance of conservation and understanding their role in the ecosystem.
Interesting Facts and Behaviors
Both the Hercules beetle and the rhinoceros beetle are known to be among the largest beetles. These fascinating creatures are mainly active at night, feasting on tropical fruits and decomposing leaf litter. During the daytime, they prefer to hide in logs or under bark.
One interesting behavior shared by both types of beetles is the ability to produce hissing squeaks. They generate these sounds by rubbing parts of their thorax together, which serves as a method of communication and as a defense mechanism when threatened.
The most notable feature of both the Hercules and rhinoceros beetles are their horn-like pincers, which extend from the head and thorax. Males mainly use these pincers to fight for territory and mates.
- The Hercules beetle can have horns longer than its body
|Up to 7 inches in males
|Adult beetles between 1.2-2.4 inches in length
|Tropical fruits, decomposing leaf litter, and logs
|Tropical fruits, nectar, and plant sap
|Up to 3-4 years
|About 2-4 years
|Horn-like pincers up to 1/3 of body size
|Similar horn-like pincers, but comparatively smaller
- Horn-like pincers
- Hissing squeaks
- Variety in body size
- Dwell in leaf litter and logs
- Help in breaking down decomposing plant matter
- Attracted to tropical fruits
- Use pincers for fights and turf competitions
Resources and Further Reading
A comprehensive study on the evolution and genomic basis of beetle diversity can be found on PubMed. It provides insights into the phylogeny of beetles, including Coleoptera, the most speciose group of animals.
Information about the Hercules beetle (Dynastes hercules) and its distribution can be found in the Entomology and Nematology Department of the University of Florida.
Encyclopedia Britannica provides a concise overview of Hercules beetles, including their taxonomy, physical characteristics, and behavior.
The National Wildlife Federation is a valuable resource for learning about wildlife conservation, habitat management, and various animal species, including horned beetles like the Hercules and Rhinoceros beetles.
University of Kentucky Entomology offers research articles, fact sheets, and informative resources related to insects, including scarab beetles, to which Hercules and Rhinoceros beetles belong.
|Up to 7 inches
|South America, Central America, and the Lesser Antilles
|Primarily Asia and Africa
Some common characteristics of Hercules and Rhinoceros beetles:
- Both belong to the family Scarabaeidae (scarab beetles)
- They are considered horned beetles
- Males are known for their notable horns used in combat
- Known as ox beetles or unicorn beetles
Pros and Cons of keeping Hercules and Rhinoceros beetles as pets:
- Unique and intriguing appearance
- Low maintenance requirements
- Cause minimal allergies compared to furry pets
- Short lifespan (1 to 2 years)
- Limited interaction and socialization
- Legal restrictions in some regions regarding keeping exotic insects as pets
Over the years, our website, whatsthatbug.com has received hundreds of letters and some interesting images asking us about these insects. Scroll down to have a look at some of them.
Letter 1 – Hercules Beetle from Mexico
Subject: Elephant Beetle?
Location: Sayulita, Nayarit Mexico
December 2, 2014 7:03 am
Hello, I live in Nayarit, Mexico on the Pacific Coast and came across this large beetle on my brick wall the other morning. The body is only a little smaller than the palm of my hand, the arms are barbed and it has two “toes” at the end of each arm. It has furry blondish color hair near the underside of its shell, but otherwise almost all black. The weather has been cooler 80s during the day and low 60’s at night, otherwise a fairly typical tropical environment.
Signature: Thank you for your assistance
Subject: Large Beetle found in Sayulita, Mexico
Location: Sayulita, Mexico
December 3, 2014 11:59 am
A friend of mine found this lovely being just a couple of days ago. She lives in Sayulita, Mexico. She said his body is just smaller than the palm of her hand. Facebook folks are speculating that he may be a she, a female Rhino Beetle. We welcome any assistance. And yes, she too is a guardian of all things living, so this little (big) fellow/gal will be safe in her space. She simply would like to know what to call him/her.
Many thanks, and I remain a devoted evangelist for your fabulous site!
PS: Something odd happens when I share your link on FB. The image and initial paragraph that emerge with the link look like they belong to another site called “UM Travels”. See attached screen shot.
Dear Kenda and friend,
Since you both submitted the same image, we are posting both of your emails with the image of this female Hercules Beetle or Rhinoceros Beetle in the genus Dynastes. In addition to the species found in the U.S., which also range into Mexico, this might also be a female Dynastes hercules, the true Hercules Beetle, which may be viewed on BeetleSpace. According to Animals A-Z: “The Hercules beetle is the largest and most well known of all of the rhinoceros beetles, a group of large beetles that are closely related to the famous scarab beetle. The Hercules beetle is found throughout the tropical jungles and rainforests of Central and South America, where the Hercules beetle spends the majority of it’s time foraging through the leaf-litter on the forest floor in search of something to eat.” The range map includes Nayarit.
Thank you Daniel for your reply. I posted this picture on the local FB page here in Sayulita and everyone had a fun time taking guesses as to what it was. A friend had recently come across the male Hercules Beetle while hiking in the jungle, with the wonderful horn on its head, so we suspected this might be the female with all of the other similarities. Thank you for confirming.
I’m glad Kenda shared your site with me, living in the tropical jungle of Mexico provides me with an endless supply of “what’s THAT?” and strangely enough my house seems to attract an abundance of rare creatures – much to my joy and amazement.
attached is a picture of one of my favorite visitors – the harlequin beetle – what a beauty…
Letter 2 – Possibly Hercules Beetle Grub
Subject: Grub found in Florida
Geographic location of the bug: Sanibel Island, Florida, USA
Time: 07:00 PM EDT
Your letter to the bugman: Hello! Found this huge grub at the transition zone between mangrove bayou and the beach on Sanibel Island, Florida on March 1, 2018. For reference, it’s in my hand and I’m a 5’4” adult. Placed it back on the ground under a leaf after snapping this photo. Thanks for your help!
How you want your letter signed: Hannah
Letter 3 – Hercules Beetle
Hi we found this bug just outside of are office and have no idea what it is, maybe you can help us out thanks
This is a male Hercules Beetle, Dynastes tityus. We have gotten many photos this season.
Letter 4 – Hercules Beetle
I absolutely love your website, it is very informative. While surfing the site I discovered several people had asked questions about Eastern Hercules beetles. I have included a picture of my male beetle but I also have a female and am going to breed them soon. They are very easy to keep, they just need a large plastic container with air holes and some soil/bark and you feed them banana chunks and watered down maple syrup. However, unless you plan on breeding them and letting them go I would say just let them stay outside and enjoy them there. Thanks again,
Thanks for sending in your photo and the advice to our readers.
Letter 5 – Hercules Beetle
We think this is a Hercules Beetle we found on our front porch on 6/25/06, hanging on to a peice of wood that was used as a shelf. Saw the other pictures on the site, thought you’d enjoy the clarity in these. We are in Mineral, VA. Put the critter and the shelf back where we found him, and a few days later he was gone.
Hi L. Owen,
Thanks so much for sending in your beautiful photo. We haven’t gotten any images of Hercules Beetles since last summer.
Letter 6 – Hercules Beetle
Just finished looking at your page of beetles and think I have found mine. Found this specimen on my patio in Charleston, West Virginia, in July 2000. I am into the hobby of scrapbooking pictures and was including this one in my “Flora nd Fauna” album. Hope you enjoy.
Thank you for the awesome photos. We are sorry that in the interest of space, we could not include your artwork as presented, but we have included several of the better images. They are among the best photos of Dynastes tityus we have received. Your male specimen has impressive horns. I believe this enormous beetle intimidates photographers into making out of focus images.
Letter 7 – Hercules Beetle
Just finished looking at your page of beetles and think I have found mine. Found this specimen on my patio in Charleston, West Virginia, in July 2000. I am into the hobby of scrapbooking pictures and was including this one in my "Flora nd Fauna" album. Hope you enjoy.
Thank you for the awesome photos. We are sorry that in the interest of space, we could not include your artwork as presented, but we have included several of the better images. They are among the best photos of Dynastes tityus we have received. Your male specimen has impressive horns. I believe this enormous beetle intimidates photographers into making ou
t of focus images.
Letter 8 – Hercules Beetle
Eastern Hercules Beetle
Tue, May 5, 2009 at 2:37 PM
Some guys in my Army platoon found this beetle while we were training at Camp Shelby, MS two summers ago (August 2007). It was very sluggish and did not appear in good health, and died shortly after placing it in a box to observe. I never knew what it was until i visited your site yesterday to post a question about a different bug. I thought you guys could use a cool image! It was about 2 1/2 inches in length and was found in a large open field.
I look forward to hearing from you on the ID for my question yesterday. Thanks!!!
Southern Mississippi, USA
Thanks for submitting this beautiful photo of a male Eastern Hercules Beetle, Dynastes tityus. Sadly, our email program for the website does not allow us to identify the sender of the message before opening the message, so there is no way for us to quickly scan your previous query. In an attempt to locate the email you sent yesterday, we stumbled upon a gorgeous image of a Harlequin Beetle from Trinidad, and needed to post it. Alas, our old computer is quite sluggish and every task we perform takes an inordinate amount of time, including replying to as many people who contact us as possible. As soon as we get our book advance, we are going to purchase a brand new tricked out Mac so we can write and scan images quickly and easily. We hope we are able to find your previous questions when we have more time, but right now, our real job is calling upon us and we have a train to catch.
Letter 9 – Hercules Beetle or Rhinoceros Beetle
Hercules Beetle/Rhinoceros Beetle
(9/1/2003) What’s this Beetle
My husband found this on one of our tomato plants this weekend. I have been searching the web trying to identify it but haven’t had any luck. We are located in Claremore, Oklahoma.
Thanks for your help
You have taken a beautiful photograph of a male Hercules Beetle, Dynastes tityus. We have only received photos of dead ones in the past which can be viewed on our beetle page. The female does not have horns. Sometimes they are called Unicorn Beetles or Rhinoceros Beetles depending upon the author, but our latest sources credit the common name to be Hercules, though the scientific name remains the same. A larger species is found in the West, Dynastes granti. Adults are reported to feed off the sap of trees , especially from the Ash family, and to eat figs, while the grubs eat leaf litter and rotten wood. Some great photos of mating couples of D. granti can be found on this site:
These are reportedly the most massive beetles in North America, though some Stag Beetles may be in contention for the record. Here is a photo of Dynastes tityus on a postage stamp issued in the U.S. in 1999.
Thank you so much for your response. My husband ended up moving him the next day to a vacant field across the road because he found him on the ground in front of my barn and was afraid my horses would step on him and crush him. I hope he has a very long and productive life. I have never in my life seen a Beetle quite like him.
I think you forgot to include the web address. My husband would really like
to see the picture of the postage stamp. Thanks again.
Here is the entire sheet.
Letter 10 – Hercules Beetle or Unicorn Beetle
It has stickery feet that tickled on your hand. He isn’t afraid of anything. I found him walking on the parking lot at Wal-Mart down here in Lumberton, Texas. Sorry about the clarity of one photograph he kept moving and I am just leaning how to use this camera.
Thank you for the photo of an Eastern Hercules Beetle, Dynastes tityus, also known as a Unicorn Beetle. Unicorn is something of a misnomer, since your side view reveals additional horns. These are among the largest American Beetles.
Letter 11 – Horned Rhinoceros Beetle carcass from New Guinea
Subject: Beetle from Papua New Guinea
Location: New Ireland Province, Papua New Guinea
June 1, 2016 8:25 am
Hi guys! Is this some manner of stag beetle? Found on a recent trip to New Ireland Province, Papua New Guinea. There were a bunch of beetle carcasses littering the path.
This is NOT a Stag Beetle, but rather a Scarab Beetle, commonly called a Horned Rhinoceros Beetle, Xylotrupes gideon lamarchus, a species we identified on Butterfly Designs. According to Farangs Gone Wild: “Attracted to Blacklight.” According to Insects on Palms it is a species that attacks the blooms on coconut palms. The condition in which you found it and others indicates that some predator fed on the fatty, nutritious body, leaving behind the less edible parts of the Horned Rhinoceros Beetle, including the legs, wings and horns. We sometimes receive images of related Rhinoceros Beetles in North America that have been eaten, leaving behind only the head.
Letter 12 – Male Hercules Beetle
Hercules Beetle in perspective
Hello! After my mother-in-law sent me some pictures of an unusually large beetle they found in Central Texas, I did a search on the internet to figure out what it was, and discovered from your site that it was a Hercules Beetle (I think!). I noticed there didn’t seem to be a picture of the beetle with an object to show it’s actual size, so I included a couple of the pictures taken (on my father-in-law’s hand) to show how big they actually are. I apologize if the pictures are too large, but I hope you can use them on your site sometime.
Thank you for sending us your wonderful image of a male Hercules Beetle with the human hand for scale.
Letter 13 – Male Hercules Beetle
Subject: Hercules Beetle
Location: southport, NC
August 5, 2013 12:15 pm
Found this little guy flipped on his back not moving at all about to be run over at our checkpoint, so I picked him up moved him to a baracade. Looked 5mins later and he was cruising along. We thought he was dead. He is an awesome bug. So strong. Apparently they can lift 1, 150 times there body weight
Signature: D. Barr
Dear D. Barr,
We were away from the office for 2 1/2 weeks in August, during our busiest request season each year, and we did not respond to any requests at that time. We are trying to post one letter at a time from this unanswered deluge of requests. Your letter is being tagged with the Bug Humanitarian Award for your kindness to this male Eastern Hercules Beetle.
Letter 14 – Mating Western Rhinoceros Beetles
Better pics of the Rino, Hope you can use them.
Ed. Note: We have put in a request for Danny to provide additional information on this image. Is he raising the beetles? or were they found in the wild? Only time will tell.
I sent you a few pics last week, they were found in Payson Arizona. I do have 3 males and 5 females. I will try to raise any offspring. The pics sent last week were taken on the spur. in the current photos I was able to use a tripod. How about that bug luv.