Giant Owl Butterfly: All You Need to Know

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The giant owl butterfly is a fascinating species, known for its striking appearance and unique behavior. These captivating insects, with their large size and striking wing patterns, are a favorite among butterfly enthusiasts and nature lovers alike.

Native to Central and South America, the giant owl butterfly belongs to the Nymphalidae family. Its most distinctive feature is the large eye-like patterns on the wings, which mimic the eyes of a larger predator. These eye spots serve as a deterrent for potential predators, as they confuse them into thinking the butterfly is a larger, more threatening creature. The giant owl butterfly’s wingspan typically ranges from 10 to 20 centimeters, making it one of the largest butterfly species in the world.

Giant owl butterflies are most active during the twilight hours, known as crepuscular behavior. This sets them apart from many other butterflies, which are usually active during the day. Their preferred habitats include subtropical and tropical forests, where they can find ample plant life for feeding, mating, and laying their eggs.

Giant Owl Butterfly Overview

Scientific Classification

The Giant Owl butterfly belongs to the Lepidoptera order, under the genus Caligo. It is classified under the following taxa:

  • Kingdom: Animalia
  • Phylum: Arthropoda
  • Class: Insecta

Physical Characteristics

  • Notable large ‘eye’ spots
  • Cousin of the popular Blue Morpho

Giant Owl butterflies are known for their impressive eye spots. They have two large eye-like markings on the wings, giving them the “owl” name. These butterflies share similarities with the Blue Morpho species.

Distribution and Habitat

  • Native to Central and South America
  • Found in rainforests, open areas, and gardens

Giant Owl butterflies are native to Central and South America, where they inhabit rainforests, open areas, and gardens. They can be found in a variety of habitats and are a popular sight in butterfly houses.

Here’s a comparison table of Giant Owl and Blue Morpho butterflies:

Feature Giant Owl Butterfly Blue Morpho Butterfly
Eye Spots Yes No
Distribution Central, South America Central, South America, parts of Mexico
Wingspan Up to 20 cm Up to 20 cm
Main Wing Color Brown Blue
Preferred Habitat Rainforests, Open Areas Rainforests

In summary, the Giant Owl butterfly is an intriguing insect with captivating eye spots, belonging to the Lepidoptera order and Caligo genus. It thrives in Central and South American habitats and shares characteristics with the Blue Morpho butterfly.

Life Cycle and Diet

From Egg to Caterpillar

The life cycle of a giant owl butterfly begins with the female laying her eggs on suitable host plants, usually in the rainforests. They are known as tropical butterflies because they inhabit a variety of habitats, including the forest and the rainforest. The larvae that hatch from the eggs are commonly known as caterpillars.

Caterpillars of the giant owl butterfly have some distinct characteristics:

  • Bright orange or red body
  • Spiky, black tubercules
  • Feeding mainly on plants from the Piperaceae family

Chrysalis Stage

As the caterpillar grows, it eventually forms a protective case called a chrysalis for the next stage in its life cycle. The transformation inside the chrysalis, known as metamorphosis, takes place:

Features of chrysalis:

  • Takes around two weeks for the transformation to complete
  • Chrysalis is often brown or green, camouflaging with the surroundings

Adult Butterfly

The adult giant owl butterfly is a striking and large tropical butterfly, with a wingspan that can reach up to 20 cm. Its name comes from the unique eyespots on the underside of the wings, which resemble the large eyes of an owl.

Key characteristics of adult giant owl butterflies:

  • Nocturnal and active mainly at dusk
  • Diet consists of fermented fruit, nectar, and sap


  • The eyespots help to deter and confuse predators
  • Attracts butterfly enthusiasts for observation and photography


  • Can be a pest in some areas, as the larvae feed on commercially important plants

In summary, the giant owl butterfly has a fascinating life cycle and diet, going through various stages of development from egg to caterpillar, chrysalis, and finally adult butterfly. This stunning creature deserves protection and, as with all inhabitants of the rainforest, benefits from conservation efforts.

Behavior and Survival Strategies

Camouflage and Mimicry

Giant owl butterflies, as their name suggests, have evolved remarkable camouflage abilities. Their wings closely resemble an owl’s face, allowing them to blend in with their surroundings. This mimicry serves as a defense mechanism, preventing predators from recognizing them as prey.

Eye Spots

Their most distinguishing feature is their eye spots. Located on the hindwings, these large, circular markings resemble the eyes of a predator, like an owl. This creates an illusion, deterring potential attackers.

Giant owl butterfly eye spots have several advantages:

  • Intimidating to predators
  • Divert attention from vital body parts
  • Confuse enemies, providing time to escape

Nocturnal Lifestyle

Another survival strategy employed by these butterflies is their nocturnal lifestyle. Active primarily at night, they avoid many daytime predators.

Giant Owl Butterfly vs Typical Butterfly:

Attribute Giant Owl Butterfly Typical Butterfly
Activity Time Nocturnal (active during the night) Diurnal (active during the day)
Defense Mechanism Eye spots, owl face mimicry Camouflage, coloration

In summary, the giant owl butterfly incorporates unique strategies, such as camouflage and eye spots, to improve its chances of survival. Embracing a nocturnal lifestyle provides an additional layer of protection against potential predators.

Giant Owl Butterfly and Its Ecosystem

Predators and Prey

The giant owl butterfly has various predators such as birds and amphibians. Their primary prey includes:

  • Mango
  • Pineapple
  • Fermented fruit

These butterflies are often found feeding on the juices of fermenting fruits.

Roles in the Rainforest

Giant owl butterflies contribute to the rainforest ecosystem in several ways:

  • Pollination: While feeding on fruit, they help in pollinating flowers.
  • Prey: They serve as an essential food source for their predators, maintaining balance in the food chain.

Conservation Efforts

Efforts to protect the giant owl butterfly are focused on habitat preservation:

  • Combating deforestation
  • Promoting sustainable agriculture and forestry practices
Features Giant Owl Butterfly Other Butterflies
Role in ecosystem Pollination, prey for predators Pollination, prey for predators
Food sources Mango, pineapple, fermented fruit Nectar, fruit, host plants
Predators Birds, amphibians Birds, amphibians, other insects
Conservation Habitat preservation, fighting deforestation Habitat preservation, protecting host plants

Giant Owl Butterfly in Captivity

Breeding Programs

Giant owl butterflies, also known as Caligo memnon, are native to Central and South America. They are in captivity at butterfly exhibits, where they are bred to increase their population. The butterflies lay eggs on plants like banana and sugar cane, and as their caterpillars grow, they eat the leaves of these plants. After the caterpillar stage is complete, they form chrysalises and eventually emerge as adults.

Size and Wingspan:

  • Large size, with a wingspan up to 20 centimeters (7.9 inches).
  • Notable for their distinctive ‘eye’ spots on the wings.

Creating a Miniature Rainforest at Home

If you are interested in creating a small habitat for the giant owl butterflies at home, here are the basic requirements:

  1. Plants: Include host plants like banana and sugar cane for the caterpillars to eat, as well as other plants native to their environment.
  2. Temperature and Humidity: Imitate their natural habitat by maintaining a warm and humid environment, preferably simulating that of a rainforest.
  3. Misting: Regularly mist the plants to maintain humidity and provide water for the butterflies to drink.
Requirements Butterfly Exhibit Home Rainforest
Warm Temperature
High Humidity

Please note that the giant owl butterfly’s life cycle and all requirements need to be carefully monitored to ensure healthy development in captivity.

Reader Emails

Over the years, our website, has received hundreds of letters and some interesting images asking us about these insects. Scroll down to have a look at some of them.

Letter 1 – Cream Striped Owl Moth from Botswana


Subject: Moth to be identified
Location: Botswana
May 23, 2016 4:34 am
Photographed this Moth at Kubu Island in Southern Botswana. Kabul Island is situated in the Makgadikgadi Salt Pans. The Moths wingspan/width when not in flight was between 2.5 – 3 Inches wide. Any help will be appreciated.
Signature: Tony Camacho

Cream Striped Owl Moth
Cream Striped Owl Moth

Dear Tony,
We believe we have correctly identified you stunning moth as a Cream Striped Owl Moth,
Cyligramma latona, thanks to images posted to iSpot.

Letter 2 – Cream Striped Owl Moth from Zanzibar


Subject:  Lepidoptera in Zanzibar
Geographic location of the bug:  Zanzibar.
Date: 11/19/2017
Time: 03:14 PM EDT
Hello again,
Here I come with a beautiful specimen, I’m not sure if it’s a moth or a butterfly.
It was at the hotel we were in Zanzibar island, on may 2016.
Can you help me to identify the species? I’ve been searching on Internet without any results.
Thank you one more time.
How you want your letter signed:  Ferran Lizana

Cream Striped Owl

Hello again.
I think it’s not necessari your help for this species because finally I’ve found it. 😉
It’s Cyligramma latona. And I think it’s for sure.
Anyway, thank you for your work.

Hi Ferran,
We are happy you were able to identify your Cream Striped Owl, which is pictured on African Moths and on iNaturalist where it states:  “This widespread and common species can be found in western subsaharan Africa, including Egypt and Guinea. It can also be found in southern Africa.”

Letter 3 – Forest Giant Owl Butterfly


South American Moth
Location: Ecuador (rain forest)
December 13, 2010 11:40 pm
I took this photo in an Ecuadorian rain forest about 15 years ago. It was taken in a butterfly house where the locals were breeding and selling them (so I am not sure if it is even native to South America).
I would truly love to know what it is?
Many thanks!
Signature: Susan Kronick (Toronto, Ontario)

Forest Giant Owl Butterfly

Dear Susan,
This is a butterfly, not a moth.  It is an Owl Butterfly in the genus
Caligo, a group of South and Central American butterflies that have an excellent method of protective mimicry.  The undersides of the wings look nothing like the upper sides of the wings that you have photographed.  The reverse sides of the wings are brown with markings that somewhat resemble feathers, and there is a large prominent black spot with a bright yellow ring around it on each lower wing.  These spots look like eyes.  When the butterfly is threatened, it assumes an upside down pose displaying the eyespots.  This startles the predator into thinking that what might have been a tasty insect morsel is actually a large predatory owl and that the former predator might become prey.  We wish you also had a photo of the undersides of the wings to illustrate this.  A web search of images of Caligo butterfly will show you many examples.  We believe your specimen might be Caligo eurilochus based on a photo we found online.  The Neotropical Butterflies website gives it the common name Forest Giant Owl and indicates it may be the subspecies Caligo eurilochus mattogrossensis, thought the Neotropical Butterflies website also has a subspecies Caligo eurilochus livius.  The World Association of Zoos and Aquariums website states:  “Adults are crepuscular and often sip on fermented fruits on the ground. Caterpillars feed on leaves of bananas and heliconias and can cause damage in banana plantations. They are nocturnal and rest at the midrib of the leaves during day, sometimes in groups. The older and brown caterpillars rest on the stem where they are difficult to detect.

Hi Daniel,
A butterfly!  Imagine that. All these years I thought it was moth because it was resting with its wings flat.
But what a very interesting butterfly. I appreciate all the information and links.
I will check my photos from the trip to see if I did happen to get a shot of its underside.
Thank you so much. You made my day!

Letter 4 – Great Owl Moth from Thailand


Subject: Great owl moth( Erebus macrops)???
Location: Rung Sawang village, Rarm Intra 8, Bang Khen, Bangkok, Thailand
May 1, 2017 7:36 am
So this is the second time I spot this moth first time my grandfather spot it when I saw it I think it was female because she is very big so now my grandmother spot it at the same spot as my grand father, that spot is outdoor kitchen, This time I think it was male because it was small. What it host plant I know that it host plant was acacia because of wiki but is it really acacia in Bangkok? I think it might be Leucaena leucocephala because at the end of the road in the village it has little forest that has many plant (include banana lemongrass and many tall grass). And what they really call Great owl moth, Owl eye moth, Owl moth. THANKS
forgot he about 3-4 inches
Signature: Focus Tharatorn Neamphan

Great Owl Moth

Dear Focus,
Thank you for submitting images of a Great Owl Moth from Thailand.

Letter 5 – Mystery: Unidentified Brush Footed Butterfly: Owl Butterfly perhaps???


A butterfly !
June 28, 2010
Your letter to the bugman    Hi I took this photograph in a butterfly garden located in Quepos, Costa Rica, Pacific Coast.
How you want your letter signed    mmh ? don’t understand the question ?
Geographic Location of Bug     Quepos, Costa Rica, Pacific Coast.

Might this be an Owl Butterfly

Dear mmh ? don’t understand the question ?,
The line on our form that indicates “How you want your letter signed” is the field that allows the writer to use their real name or a pseudonym with the submission of the letter.  The letters that are submitted may be posted to our website and it is generally considered proper etiquette to place a name or identifying mark after writing a letter.  We respect our readership’s desire to maintain anonymity sometimes, so we do not post real names or email addresses unless the person completes the “How you want your letter signed” field with a real name, or unless they request that their email address be posted.  Your photo is very nice.

Ed. Note: mmh ? don’t understand the question ? did not request an identification and we don’t understand what they want us to do with the photograph.  The correct identification of a rarely seen species might take hours, and even then, there might not be a satisfactory result.  Though we don’t believe this is an Owl Butterfly in the genus Caligo, it does share some similarities.  Cirrus IMages has a nice image of an Owl Butterfly.  This specimen might be in the genus Caligo, and it might be a related genus in the family Nymphalidae, the Brush Footed Butterflies.  We suspect that Karl will be able to provide us with more information.

Hi Daniel
Thanks a lot for your answer ! I’m french and sometimes my english is a bit too light !!
Shall I complete the form with my real name then : Sabine Bernert
In fact, now that I have more space to explain my question, I should add that I’m working on two books about Costa Rica wildlife (adult and kids versions).
Many thanks for your help !!
All the best

Hi Again Sabine,
Now that you have clarified your confusion, we feel that we owe you an apology for not providing you with an identification.  Also, we would think the butterfly garden might have information on the species represented in the garden.


  • Bugman

    Bugman aka Daniel Marlos has been identifying bugs since 1999. is his passion project and it has helped millions of readers identify the bug that has been bugging them for over two decades. You can reach out to him through our Contact Page.

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  • Piyushi Dhir

    Piyushi is a nature lover, blogger and traveler at heart. She lives in beautiful Canada with her family. Piyushi is an animal lover and loves to write about all creatures.

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4 Comments. Leave new

  • It is a Eryphanis sp., actually a so called Giant Owl Butterfly, Nymphalidae, Brassolinae.

    • Thanks for your input on this posting. It is also good to know that multiple genera are known as Owl Butterflies.

  • Focus Tharatorn Neamphan
    May 2, 2017 2:22 am

    I think that is Eye of the ox owl butterfly because they have similar to butterfly in game Flutter Butterfly Sanctuary.

  • Focus Tharatorn Neamphan
    May 2, 2017 11:34 pm

    What is there host plant if around mynhouse doesn’t have acaia


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