Giant Leopard Moth Life Cycle Unveiled: A Journey Explained

The giant leopard moth, scientifically known as Hypercompe scribonia, is a visually striking insect with a fascinating life cycle. This moth is recognized for its attractive white wings adorned with black spots, which can sometimes appear iridescent blue under certain lighting conditions. The moth’s development stages include egg, larva, pupa, and adult, and its life cycle varies between one and two broods per year, depending on the region.

The larvae, known as giant woolly bears, are quite distinctive, with their fuzzy black appearance and distinctive red bands between each body segment. As they grow, they undergo several molting stages before pupating. During the pupal stage, the moth undergoes a remarkable transformation, trading its larval form for the large, striking appearance of the adult giant leopard moth.

Understanding the life cycle of the giant leopard moth is essential for appreciating its role in the ecosystem and the relationships it forms with plants and other animals. Many studies focus on the various aspects of these moths’ lives, including their feeding habits, mating behavior, and strategies to avoid predation.

Giant Leopard Moth Identification

Description and Physical Features

The Giant Leopard Moth (Hypercompe scribonia) is a beautiful and easily identifiable species of moth. It belongs to the family Erebidae, and is also known as the Eyed Tiger Moth.

  • Physical features:
    • Heavy-bodied
    • Distinctive wing pattern

Color and Markings

The color and markings of the Giant Leopard Moth are what make it stand out. The moth displays an elegant pattern of black spots on its wings.

  • Color:
    • White wings
    • Black spots
    • Iridescent blue (sometimes)
  • Markings:
    • Hollow black spots on thorax
    • Black spots on wings, sometimes with white centers

Size and Wingspan

Giant Leopard Moths can grow quite large as compared to other moth species. The wingspan plays a significant role in identifying them.

  • Size:
    • Adult moth: approx. 2 inches long
  • Wingspan:
    • Adult moth: approx. 2.25-3.6 inches (5.7-9.1 cm)
Feature Dimension
Adult Moth Size Approx. 2 inches
Adult Moth Wingspan 2.25-3.6 inches

Life Cycle and Behavior

Eggs and Larvae

Giant leopard moths begin their life cycle as eggs, laid on or near the foliage of their preferred host plants. After hatching, the larvae emerge, starting their journey toward becoming adult moths.

  • Host plants: Various plants, including weeds and flowering species
  • Number of eggs: Varies, but can be numerous

Caterpillars and Woolly Bears

Upon hatching, the larvae develop into caterpillars, also known as woolly bears. They are characterized by their fuzzy black appearance and underlying red body color.

  • Woolly bears measure up to 2 inches in length
  • Feed on a wide range of host plants for nutrition

Pupation and Adult Moths

Caterpillars eventually enter a pupal stage before emerging as adult giant leopard moths. The adult moths boast a distinctive pattern of black spots on a white background.

  • The wing span of adult moths is 2.25-3.6 inches
  • Adults feature hollow black (or sometimes iridescent blue) spots on their thorax

Mating Sessions and Reproduction

Giant leopard moths are nocturnal creatures, and their mating sessions typically occur at night. After successful mating, females lay eggs to continue the life cycle.

Diel Flight Periodicity

These moths display diel flight periodicity, meaning their flight and rest patterns follow a daily rhythm. Adult moths are known to rest on vertical surfaces during the day.

Comparison Table: Caterpillars vs. Adult Moths

Feature Caterpillars (Woolly Bears) Adult Moths
Length Up to 2 inches N/A
Color Fuzzy black with red body White with black spots
Activity Feed on a wide range of plants Rest on vertical surfaces during the day, mate at night

Overall, the life cycle and behavior of the giant leopard moth involve a fascinating transformation from larvae to caterpillars, on to pupation, adulthood, and eventual reproduction. These beautiful moths are easily identifiable and remain a subject of intrigue for researchers and enthusiasts alike.

Habitat and Range

Distribution in North America

The giant leopard moth, or Ecpantheria scribonia, can be found in various parts of the United States, as well as some parts of Canada. The range of this moth stretches from:

  • Northern regions like Ontario in Canada
  • Southwards to the United States, including states such as Texas, Florida, and Missouri

This species also inhabits the New England area, making its home in mixed woodlands and forest edges.

Habitats in Mexico and Colombia

In addition to North America, giant leopard moths can also be found in countries like Mexico and Colombia. In these regions, they typically reside in:

  • Tropical and subtropical forests
  • Montane and cloud forests
  • Open grasslands and agricultural fields

These diverse habitats provide the necessary resources for Ecpantheria scribonia to thrive and complete its life cycle.

In Colombia, giant leopard moths have been reported in the Andean cloud forests, where they possibly benefit from the unique microclimates and abundant plant life.

Diet and Host Plants

Magnolia and Honeysuckle

Giant leopard moths, specifically their larvae, known as giant woolly bears, are polyphagous and feed on various plants. They are particularly fond of low-growing forbs and woody plants, like magnolia and honeysuckle. These plants are suitable host plants as they provide essential nutrients for their growth and development.

Violets and Other Plants

In addition to magnolias and honeysuckles, giant leopard moth larvae also feed on various other plants. Some examples include violets, dandelions, and sunflowers. These plants provide diverse nutrients and sustenance for the caterpillars as they progress through their life stages.

Characteristics of host plants for Giant Leopard Moths include:

  • Low-growing forbs and woody plants
  • Provide essential nutrients for larvae growth and development

Garden Tips and Attracting Giant Leopard Moths

For those interested in attracting these beautiful moths to their garden, consider planting some of their preferred host plants. Keep in mind the following garden tips when trying to attract these moths:


  • Contribute to the moth’s natural life cycle
  • Encourage biodiversity and ecological balance


  • May attract other insects or pests

Comparison Chart: Popular Host Plants for Giant Leopard Moths

Plant Benefits for Giant Leopard Moths Cons
Magnolia Provides essential nutrients May attract other insects or pests
Honeysuckle Easy to grow and maintain May become invasive if not controlled
Violets Attractive and colorful addition to the garden Can be slow to propagate
Dandelions Support numerous pollinators, including giant leopard moths Often considered a weed and undesirable in some gardens
Sunflowers Adds visual interest to the garden May require additional space and support

Remember, always keep your garden well-maintained to minimize the risk of attracting unwanted pests. Plant a diverse array of host plants to support Giant Leopard Moths and maintain ecological balance.

Predators and Survival Strategies

Predators and Threats

The giant leopard moth, also known as Hypercompe scribonia, faces various predators during its life cycle. Possible threats include birds, spiders, small mammals, and other insects. Some predators may specifically target the moth during its vulnerable pupal stage, while others may prey upon adults during flight.

  • Birds: They can easily spot and consume the moths during their day-flying activities or when they’re resting on plants.
  • Spiders: Being ambush predators, spiders are known to catch moths using their webs or by waiting and striking when they approach.
  • Small mammals: Including bats that hunt moths during night flight and rodents that feed on larvae and pupae.
  • Other insects: Certain predatory insects like wasps and ants can prey on moth eggs, larvae, and pupae.

Camouflage and Nocturnal Behavior

The giant leopard moth has developed survival strategies to evade or avoid its predators, mainly through camouflage and nocturnal behavior. The moth features a delicate pattern of black spots on its white wings, providing subtle camouflage against various natural backgrounds. Additionally, the moth prefers to be active during the night, staying hidden from daytime predators by resting on plants or other vertical surfaces.

Seasonal Adaptations

To increase their chances of survival, giant leopard moths have also adapted to seasonal changes that impact their environment. They lay their eggs in the warmer months, allowing the larvae and pupae to benefit from increased food availability as they transform into adult moths. This strategy also helps avoid possible competition with other Lepidoptera species in the same habitat.

Pros of Seasonal Adaptations

  • Increased food availability for larvae and pupae in warmer months.
  • Lower competition with other moth species as they have different breeding seasons.

Cons of Seasonal Adaptations

  • The need to adapt and survive in varying temperatures and conditions.
  • Possible competition with other insect species that have similar adaptations.
Pros Cons
Seasonal Adaptations Increased food availability, lower competition Adaptation to varying temperatures, competition with other insects

Scientific Classification

Giant Leopard Moth (Hypercompe scribonia) belongs to the Erebidae family. It was first described by Stoll in 1790. The scientific classification is as follows:

  • Kingdom: Animalia
  • Phylum: Arthropoda
  • Class: Insecta
  • Order: Lepidoptera
  • Family: Erebidae
  • Genus: Hypercompe
  • Species: H. scribonia

The moth has striking features, such as:

  • White wings with black spots
  • Iridescent blue markings on some spots
  • Metallic blue abdomen with orange markings

Giant leopard moths are found in various habitats, including viola plants. Information about this moth can be verified on BugGuide.

A comparison with the Fullard moth reveals differences in color patterns and habitat preferences. Here’s a comparison table:

Feature Giant Leopard Moth Fullard Moth
Scientific Classification Hypercompe scribonia Fullard species
Color Pattern White with black spots Fullard color pattern
Markings Iridescent blue markings Fullard markings
Preferred Habitat Viola plants Fullard habitat

In summary, the Giant Leopard Moth’s scientific classification highlights its unique characteristics within the Erebidae family. Its distinct features, such as the white wings with black spots and iridescent blue markings, make it easily identifiable.

Giant Leopard Moth in Popular Culture

Giant Leopard Moth as Pets

  • The Giant Leopard Moth, or Hypercompe scribonia, is a beautiful creature admired for its eye-catching patterns.
  • Keeping them as pets has increased in recent years for several reasons:
    • Their unique appearance captures attention.
    • Captive moths require minimal care, mainly consisting of providing adequate food plants like sunflowers or broadleaf plantains.
Pros Cons
Low maintenance Short adult lifespan
Fascinating life cycle Caterpillars can be harmful to some plants

Art and Literature

  • Giant Leopard Moths have inspired art and literature with their stunning visual appeal.
  • Two notable examples include:
    • Napoleone – An Italian artist who incorporates the moth’s striking patterns into his work.
    • Nadia – A children’s book author who features Giant Leopard Moths in a story about the beauty of nature.

In summary, the Giant Leopard Moth has gained popularity in various aspects of popular culture due to its attractive appearance and easy care as a pet. These moths have also influenced artists and writers alike, becoming a muse in visual art and literature.

Reader Emails

Over the years, our website, has received hundreds of letters and some interesting images asking us about these insects. Scroll down to have a look at some of them.

Letter 1 – Giant Leopard Moth


moth ID
Hi again. Now you’ve really got my attention! Here is a moth I found in Austin. It was about the size of a quarter and got very uppity with us when we were trying to take its picture…it started oozing a green liquid from the dots on its back. Ive got a pic of that too…but not a very good one. The second pic is of an imperial moth (Im assuming), just thought you might enjoy it.

Hi Jeffery,
This is a Giant Leopard Moth, Ecpantheria scribonia. It is one of the Tiger Moths in the Family Arctiidae.

Letter 2 – Giant Leopard Moth


Sorry – couldn’t find this anywhere… Maybe you’ll know. We are in southeastern PA (Chester County). Thanks for your help!

Hi Anne,
This is a Giant Leopard Moth, Hypercompe scribonia. It is also known as the Eyed Tiger Moth and Great Leopard Moth and is one of the Tiger Moths in the family Arctiidae.

Letter 3 – Giant Leopard Moth


Really strange Bug
We "Spotted" this bug in our back yard on our Rose of Sharon Bush. Can you tell me what it is? We think it is some kind of moth, we have never seen anything like it. It is Beautiful!!
Eileen – Cincinnati, OH

hi Eileen,
This is a Giant Leopard Moth or Eyed Tiger Moth, Hypercompe scribonia.

Letter 4 – Giant Leopard Moth


Leopard printed moth?
Fri, Jun 19, 2009 at 3:46 PM
My mother stumbled across this pretty moth(?) in our kitchen just a little while ago, hanging out on the curtain above the dryer. The rumbling of the dryer doesn’t seem to be bothering him, as he’s just sitting there calmly. He’s like an off-white color, and covered in black spots that seem to resemble the rosettes on leopards or ocelots. I’ve never seen anything like him before, so what is he? Besides pretty that is!
Maryland, USA

Giant Leopard Moth
Giant Leopard Moth

Hi Sydney,
In the past four days, we have received at least four letters requesting that we identify the Giant Leopard Moth, Hypercompe scribonia, a species of Tiger Moth.  According to BugGuide, it it also called the Eyed Tiger Moth or Great Leopard Moth.  Of all the requests, your letter was our favorite, so we will be posting it.

Letter 5 – Giant Leopard Moth


On the outskirts of Chapel Hill, NC
Sun, Jun 21, 2009 at 4:31 PM
Does anyone know what type of Moth this is???
Chapel Hill, NC

Giant Leopard Moth
Giant Leopard Moth

Hi Geo,
We received at least four letters in as many days requesting that we identify the Giant Leopard Moth, Hypercompe scribonia, and your photo is our favorite.

Letter 6 – Giant Leopard Moth


Leopard Looking Cicada?
Mon, Jun 22, 2009 at 11:01 AM
My grandmother found this bug outside of my house near Cincinnati, Ohio. It was flying, but flew into a spider web, and when we went back to check it, it was on the concrete next to the house. The body of it looked kind of like a caterpillar, and was entirely black and white. It appeared unable to fly, so my grandmother and I moved it to the grass. When we went back to check on it, it was gone.
Kirsten Grimsley
Midwest, United States

Giant Leopard Moth
Giant Leopard Moth

Hi Kirsten,
In four days, we have received at least four requests to have a Giant Leopard Moth, Hypercompe scribonia, identified, and your sighting was from the furthest north.  The southernmost sighting was in Louisiana.  The tips of the wings of your moth, also known as an Eyed Tiger Moth, are missing many scales, no doubt because of the trauma associated with the spider web.

Letter 7 – Giant Leopard Moth


White moth with blue and black spots
Sun, Jun 21, 2009 at 8:30 AM
I found this in northwest Louisiana close to the TX border about a month ago I think he was on his last leg. I was able to pick him up and move him out of harms way. I looked through your moth section and found no pics. I’d like to know what he is.
NW Louisiana near Texas border

Giant Leopard Moth
Giant Leopard Moth

Of LaTonia,
Of the four identification requests for the Giant Leopard Moth,  Hypercompe scribonia, we have received since Friday, your sighting was the furthest west and south.  Your moth is missing the scales from the tips of the wings, indicating either it is an older moth, or that it has encountered some type of trauma.  We are thrilled to be able to post all four letters so our readership will have a clear idea of the range of this moth, and also that despite the 1000s of miles separating them, their biological clocks are ticking on the same schedule.

Letter 8 – Leopard Moth with Atrophied Wings!!!


Leopard Moth
Hey Bugman-
I almost stepped on this thing as I was walking through the house yesterday… its about an inch and a quarter long. wings seem to be nonfucntional, but im thinking it might be an immature leopard moth? what do you think? didnt respond to any movement in front of it.. in fact, it seemed to barely respond until last night when things cooled down and it got dark. There doesnt seem to be any real eyes either…. odd.
Thanks a bunch,

Hi Matt,
Ordinarily, we would say this is a newly metamorphosed Leopard Moth that had just emerged from the pupal stage. The wings take several hours to expand. After reading your letter though, we are inclined to believe it is an adult moth with atrophied wings, a birth defect.


  • Bugman

    Bugman aka Daniel Marlos has been identifying bugs since 1999. is his passion project and it has helped millions of readers identify the bug that has been bugging them for over two decades. You can reach out to him through our Contact Page.

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    Piyushi is a nature lover, blogger and traveler at heart. She lives in beautiful Canada with her family. Piyushi is an animal lover and loves to write about all creatures.

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3 thoughts on “Giant Leopard Moth Life Cycle Unveiled: A Journey Explained”

  1. I found this moth in my rental car which I picked up in Naples, FL. The car has FL plates. I would think that the car was cleaned prior to my rental so I must have picked him up locally between Naples and Vero Beach.


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