Giant Agave Bug: All You Need to Know for Easy Identification and Control

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Giant Agave Bugs are fascinating insects that can be found on agave plants, yucca, and other related species. These impressively-sized bugs, typically measuring 10 to 13 millimeters in length, are often found in warmer regions like the southwestern United States and Mexico. They have a unique appearance, with their black and red-orange striped bodies, which provides a striking contrast against the plants they inhabit.

While often considered a pest due to their feeding habits, the presence of Giant Agave Bugs can also serve as an interesting opportunity for observing their behavior up close. These insects use their needle-like mouthparts to pierce plant tissues and suck out the sap, which can lead to unsightly marks on the plant and, in some cases, significant damage. On the other hand, their natural predators like birds and lizards can be attracted to yards or gardens, contributing to a diverse ecosystem.

Understanding the life cycle, behaviors, and management strategies for the Giant Agave Bug is crucial for those who wish to protect their agave and related plants. Taking preventive measures such as providing well-drained soil, proper watering, and ensuring the health of the plants can help reduce their presence and impact. Also, mechanical removal or safe pesticide application methods can be employed if the Giant Agave Bugs become a major concern.

Giant Agave Bug Overview

Species and Distribution

The Giant Agave Bug (Acanthocephala thomasi) is an insect species found primarily in the southwestern United States and northern Mexico. This includes states such as Arizona, California, and Texas, along with parts of the American North, like North Carolina.

  • Native to:
    • Southwestern US
    • Northern Mexico
    • North Carolina

Description and Anatomy

Giant Agave Bugs are large, flat insects with a distinct appearance that features:

  • Black or dark brown body
  • Reddish-orange markings on the edges
  • Length of up to 2 inches (5 cm)

The anatomy of these insects comprises:

  • Six legs
  • Two antennae
  • A long, tapered proboscis (feeding tube)

Diet and Behavior

The diet of the Giant Agave Bug mainly includes the sap of Agave and Yucca plants. However, they can also be found feeding on other succulents. With their proboscis, they pierce the plant tissue and extract the valuable nutrients.

The behavior of Giant Agave Bugs can be summarized as follows:

  • Primarily nocturnal (active at night)
  • Often found in groups on host plants
  • Emit an unpleasant odor when disturbed

Comparing Giant Agave Bug with its close relative, Leptoglossus clypealis, in a table format:

Features Giant Agave Bug (Acanthocephala thomasi) Western Leaf-footed Bug (Leptoglossus clypealis)
Size Up to 2 inches (5 cm) 1 inch (2.5 cm)
Color Black or dark brown with reddish-orange markings Black or brown with yellow markings
Hosts Agave and Yucca plants Pinyon Pine and Juniper seeds

Identifying Giant Agave Bug

Physical Characteristics

  • Size: Giant agave bugs are large insects, typically measuring between 19-25 mm in length for males and 21-29 mm for females.
  • Color: They have a shiny black body with bright orange markings on their wings.
  • Antennae: These bugs have long, segmented antennae that extend the entire length of their body.
  • Legs: They possess leaf-footed, hind legs with distinctive traits – males have swollen hind femora with a large spike, while females have slender hind femora and small spikes.

Example: Giant agave bugs can be spotted on agave plants, where they suck the sap and cause damage to the plant tissue.

Comparison to Similar Species

Three common species often confused with giant agave bugs include leaf-footed bugs, kissing bugs, and agave snout weevils. A comparison table is provided below for clarity:

Species Antennae Legs Body Shape Bright Orange Markings
Giant Agave Bug Long, segmented Leaf-footed with unique spikes Parallel-sided, shiny black Yes
Leaf-footed Bug Long, segmented Leaf-footed Elongated No
Kissing Bug Slender Slender Elongated, tapered at end No
Agave Snout Weevil Elbowed, clubbed Short, robust Short, stout No

Keep in mind that using bugguide and naturalist apps can provide further, accurate information for distinguishing various species in the diverse natural world of insects.

Giant Agave Bug Interaction with Agave Plants

Feeding on Agave

The Giant Agave Bug (Acanthocephala thomasi) is a large, true bug that feeds on Agave plants, such as the century plant. They pierce the leaves with their sharp mouthparts and suck the sap, weakening the plant.

Features of Giant Agave Bug feeding:

  • Primarily feeds on agave and some other succulents
  • Weakens the plant by sucking its sap
  • Might spread pathogens

Reproduction and Lifecycle

Giant Agave Bugs reproduce by laying eggs on Agave leaves. The nymphs are born, grow, and molt, eventually turning into adult bugs. Their lifecycle can be summarized as:

  1. Female deposits eggs on agave leaves
  2. Nymphs emerge from eggs and start feeding on agave
  3. Nymphs grow and molt, becoming adults
  4. Adult bugs continue to feed on agave and mate

Agave Plant Damage

As Giant Agave Bugs feed on the sap, Agave plants can suffer from damaged leaves and overall weakness.

Characteristics of Agave plant damage:

  • Distorted, curled leaves
  • Stunted growth of the plant
  • Increased vulnerability to other pests and diseases

In conclusion, Giant Agave Bug is an insect that can cause substantial harm to Agave plants. By feeding on the plant’s sap, they weaken the plant, which may lead to other problems. Therefore, controlling their population and preventing infestations can help maintain the health of your Agave plants.

Potential Health Concerns

Bacteria and Disease Transmission

Giant Agave Bugs (A. declivis) may carry bacteria on their bodies. One potential concern is their resemblance to Kissing Bugs, which can transmit Chagas disease. However, there is no evidence suggesting that Giant Agave Bugs transmit Chagas disease like Kissing Bugs.

In some cases, these bugs may introduce bacteria or other pathogens to Agave plants, leading to infections. Infected plants may then affect surrounding soil or nearby plants.

Prevention and Management

To minimize the risks associated with Giant Agave Bugs, follow these prevention and management tips:

  • Inspect your Agave plants regularly for signs of infestation
  • Remove debris and dead leaves from around plants, as these provide hiding spots for insects
  • Keep surrounding areas clear of weeds and maintain a tidy garden
  • Avoid overwatering, as Agave plants prefer well-drained soils

When it comes to possible infestations, early detection is key. Be on the lookout for the Agave Snout Weevil, another pest that can cause significant damage to your plants.

In areas like Pima County, where Giant Agave Bugs may be more common, a regular gardening routine can help prevent and manage these insects’ presence.

Prevention/Management Tip Pros Cons
Inspecting plants regularly Allows for early detection of infestations Can be time-consuming
Removing debris and dead leaves Reduces hiding spots for bugs May require more frequent gardening maintenance
Clearing weeds and maintaining garden Reduces potential breeding sites Can be labor-intensive
Avoiding overwatering Minimizes the risk of insect attraction Requires careful monitoring of water levels

Bug Control Recommendation Tool

What type of pest are you dealing with?

How severe is the infestation?

Do you require child/pet/garden safe treatments (organic)?

Are you willing to monitor and maintain the treatment yourself?

Expert Advice and Resources

Local Extension Offices

Getting expert professional advice on the Giant Agave Bug (genus Acanthocephala) is crucial for proper identification and treatment. Contact your local extension office in the USA for guidance on how to manage these pests in your environment. The experts found here can provide valuable information tailored to your specific location, taking into consideration factors such as the mountain or desert landscape. They can also offer resources on addressing the problem effectively.

Online and Community Resources

In addition to reaching out to local extension offices, you can find helpful information regarding the Giant Agave Bug online. Many universities and research institutions offer extensive online resources that can help understand and manage this pest. When browsing these resources, always remember that information may vary depending on the specific agave species and regional climate, so consider the following advice as a general guide only.

  • Websites and forums related to gardening and horticulture
  • Social media groups dedicated to agave plants and succulents
  • Articles and publications from reputable growers and researchers

Remember, when looking for expert advice on dealing with the Giant Agave Bug, always exercise due diligence and consult multiple sources for reliable information. Compare and contrast opinions and perspectives from various experts, ensuring that you base your decisions on accurate and relevant data.

Disclaimer: This section aims to provide general resources on the Giant Agave Bug, but it is not intended as a comprehensive guide or a replacement for professional expertise. Always consult with experts for the most accurate guidance in dealing with specific pests and issues related to your plants.

Reader Emails

Over the years, our website, has received hundreds of letters and some interesting images asking us about these insects. Scroll down to have a look at some of them.

Letter 1 – Giant Agave Bug


Beetle found on an agave plant
Sun, May 17, 2009 at 11:59 AM
Would like to know the identity of this beetle. Found near Sedona, AZ on 5/17/09 on the stem of an agave (century plant) starting to bloom. Body about 4 cm long. Two different beetles are shown, one with spot at end of body, one without. They are assumed to be the same species – perhaps male and female?
Many thanks
Northern AZ

Giant Agave Bug
Giant Agave Bug

Hi Dale,
Your insect is not a beetle, but rather a true bug.  It is a Giant Agave Bug, Acanthocephala thomasi.  Unlike beetles which have chewing mouthparts, the true bugs have piercing and sucking mouthparts.  The Giant Agave Bug feeds on the juices of the agave plant.  Look at BugGuide for more photos on the Giant Agave Bug which is found in California, Arizona, New Mexico and Texas.

Letter 2 – Giant Agave Bug


Red Socks
Thu, Jun 25, 2009 at 4:36 PM
I saw this guy on a trail in a forested canyon in the Huachuca Mts., southeast AZ (el. 6000 ft). It’s about 4cm long. This is my first foray into bug ident., so I don’t even know where to start! Thanks for the great site, I’m bookmarking it.
Sierra Vista, AZ

Giant Agave Bug
Giant Agave Bug

Dear mt,
This is a Giant Agave Bug, Acanthocephala thomasi, a Leaf Footed Bug in the family Coreidae.  Red Socks is a very colorful description for this distinctive member of the genus. You may read more about this species on BugGuide.

Letter 3 – Giant Agave Bug


Unknown beetle
I ran across this little guy (well, BIG guy actually) while I was out for a walk today. He was hiding from the sun on a rug thrown over a fence. This guy was pretty good sized – about 2″ or maybe a little more (body only). The photo doesn’t show it very well, but its hind legs were extremely long compared to the others. I’d love to know what it is. He was a very cooperative photo subject.
Bisbee, AZ

Ed. Note: Before we had a chance to reply, Dawn found her Giant Agave Bug,Acanthocephala thomasi, on BugGuide. It is one of the Coreid or Leaf-Footed Bugs.

Letter 4 – Giant Agave Bug


Arizona Beetle
Hi, Bugman!
I searched your site and couldn’t find a match for this guy I found in the ladies’ room at the Proctor Trailhead, Madera Canyon, Arizona, on the 24th of November. The closest match is a longhorn beetle of some sort, or a Pine Sawyer? He was quite large, about three inches long. Any ideas? Thanks!
Mary Beth Stowe
San Diego, CA

Hi Mary Beth,
This is not a beetle, but a true bug, or more specifically, the Giant Agave Bug, Acanthocephala thomasi.

Letter 5 – Giant Agave Bug


Giant Agave Bug
I dig the site. It a great resource for helping a relative athrophobe like myself. I usually try to take pictures of the strange bugs i come across, and it has certainly helped me in identifying the boxelder bugs in my front yard, as well as the Jerusalem Cricket my cats brought in. Here is a giant agave bug that i found in my office in Globe, Arizona. I noticed that the picture you have up makes it kind of hard to identify in browsing. Feel free to use it.
Austin Baker

Hi Austin,
Thanks for sending in your image of an adult Giant Agave Bug, Acanthocephala thomasi.

Letter 6 – Giant Agave Bug


Subject:  One-legged or injured bug
Geographic location of the bug:  Sierra Vista Az
Date: 09/09/2021
Time: 07:20 PM EDT
Your letter to the bugman:  9/9/21 About 8 am – this fascinating bug was on a small geranium plant in filtered light. It appears to have one back leg – injured? Moving the plant to brighter light for a better photo caused bug to crawl under a leaf. Back in filtered light it left a ‘deposit’ (poop? eggs?) as it crawled to a higher leaf.
How you want your letter signed:  Tommy and Julia

Giant Agave Bug

Dear Tommy and Julia,
This is a Giant Agave Bug,
Acanthocephala thomasi, and you can compare your image to this image from BugGuide.  According to BugGuide:  “Males have greatly swollen hind femora bearing at least one large spike; females have slender hind femora bearing several small spikes.”  Based on this BugGuide image of a mating pair, we believe your individual is not a female and the deposit on your other image is not an egg.

Letter 7 – Giant Agave Bug


Subject:  Beetle
Geographic location of the bug:  Texas
Date: 06/03/2018
Time: 04:06 PM EDT
Your letter to the bugman:  Can you identify?
How you want your letter signed:  Vickie Couch

Giant Agave Bug

Dear Vickie,
This is a Giant Agave Bug,
Acanthocephala thomasi, which you can verify by viewing this BugGuide image.

Letter 8 – Giant Agave Bugs


Bug found in Cochise County AZ
Mon, Jun 29, 2009 at 10:23 PM
Hi- I photographed these bugs on the flower stalk of a shin dagger (Agave schottii) in Cochise County AZ (SE AZ) on June 25 2009). There were dozens of shin daggers in late bloom in the area, but only a few had these insects present. Thanks, Keith
I’m not sure what this field means
Cochise County AZ (SE AZ) near Sonoita AZ

Giant Agave Bugs
Giant Agave Bugs

Hi Unsure,
The field in question is for your name, or alias.  These are Giant Agave Bugs, Acanthocephala thomasi.  We posted an image yesterday before you wrote, but you must have missed it on our website.  That querant described the Giant Agave Bugs as having red socks.  Your photo shows the Giant Agave Bugs on their host plant.

Reader Emails

Over the years, our website, has received hundreds of letters and some interesting images asking us about these insects. Scroll down to have a look at some of them.

Letter 1 – Bug of the Month November 2012: Giant Agave Bug


Subject: New Bug in town!
Location: Cottonwood, AZ 86326
October 31, 2012 4:36 pm
This is a large (1.5”) shield shaped black body, long red and black legs and antennae, sawtooth long black legs (like a grasshopper). He moves slowly but can walk on glass. Very small head and mouthparts. There are a few other smaller ones around as well.
Signature: Carol Mosier

Giant Agave Bug

Hi Carol,
Since it is the first of the month, it is time for us to select a new Bug of the Month, and your wonderful photo of a Giant Agave Bug,
Acanthocephala thomasi, one of the Leaf Footed Bugs or Big Legged Bugs in the family Coreidae, arrived on cue, we are selecting your inquiry as that featured insect.  Many people mistake Leaf Footed Bugs for Stink Bugs, and though they are related, they are in distinct families.  The most commonly requested identification from this family is the Western Conifer Seed Bug, and it was selected as the Bug of the Month in the past.  Many members of this family reach adult size in the autumn months and consequently attract more attention.  In colder climates, many species enter homes to hibernate, but they are not destructive, just cold.  Xenogere has a nice first person encounter documentation of the Giant Agave Bug.


  • Bugman

    Bugman aka Daniel Marlos has been identifying bugs since 1999. is his passion project and it has helped millions of readers identify the bug that has been bugging them for over two decades. You can reach out to him through our Contact Page.

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  • Piyushi Dhir

    Piyushi is a nature lover, blogger and traveler at heart. She lives in beautiful Canada with her family. Piyushi is an animal lover and loves to write about all creatures.

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