Christmas Beetle: A Quick and Easy Guide

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The Christmas beetle is a fascinating insect that grabs attention during the holiday season. These colorful beetles, found primarily in Australia, are known for their vibrant, metallic hues and association with the warm, festive months of December and January. They belong to the scarab family and have a diverse range of species, with over 35 identified so far.

One of the reasons Christmas beetles have become synonymous with the holiday season is their tendency to swarm around outdoor lights during Christmas gatherings. Their larvae primarily feed on grassroots, while adult beetles prefer the foliage of eucalyptus trees. These interesting insects play a critical role in the natural ecosystem as decomposers and recyclers of organic materials.

While Christmas beetles are not a threat to humans, they can sometimes cause damage to trees by defoliating them. This usually happens when the population increases significantly in a given area, which can stress affected trees. Overall, these beetles contribute to the unique ecological diversity of the Australian landscape and are a fascinating subject for entomology enthusiasts.

What is a Christmas Beetle?

Origin and Significance of the Name

Christmas beetles are named so because they are commonly found during the Christmas season in Australia. They primarily belong to the Anoplognathus genus of the scarabaeidae family, and their association with the festive season adds a sense of wonder and delight.

Relation to Scarab Beetles

Christmas beetles are part of the scarabaeidae family, which consists of dung beetles and others with a similar structure. They share features such as:

  • A convex body shape
  • Clubbed antennae
  • Strong spiky legs for digging

Physical Characteristics

These beetles have distinguishing attributes, such as:

  • Elytra: Hardened outer wings called elytra protect their delicate flying wings. Elytra exhibit metallic or iridescent colors.
  • Exoskeleton: A tough exoskeleton supports and protects their body.
  • Clubbed antennae: Christmas beetles have club-like antennae, which are sensitive to touch and smell.
  • Spiky legs: Their legs are strong, spiky, and designed for digging.

Here’s a comparison table showcasing the similarities and differences between Christmas beetles and other scarab beetles:

Feature Christmas Beetles Other Scarab Beetles
Elytra Metallic or iridescent colors Varies, usually less vibrant
Antennae Clubbed Clubbed
Legs Spiky and strong for digging Spiky and strong for digging
Seasonal Activity Primarily during Christmas season Year-round, varies by species

Christmas beetles showcase remarkable features and unique activity during the festive season, setting them apart from other scarab beetles while sharing similarities in their physical structure.

Anoplognathus Species

Anoplognathus Pallidicollis

Anoplognathus pallidicollis, also known as the Christmas Beetle, is a species commonly found in Australia. It belongs to the Scarabaeidae family and is known for its festive appearance.

  • Color: Pale brown or yellow.
  • Size: Ranges from 15mm to 20mm.
  • Habitat: Eucalyptus forests, feeding on the leaves.

Anoplognathus Viriditarsus

Anoplognathus viriditarsus is another species of Christmas Beetle, also native to Australia. This species is primarily found in New South Wales and Victoria areas, with some presence in Queensland and South Australia.

  • Color: Bright green or gold.
  • Size: Slightly smaller, averaging 15mm in length.
  • Habitat: Various habitats, including woodlands and urban areas.
Feature Anoplognathus Pallidicollis Anoplognathus Viriditarsus
Color Pale brown or yellow Bright green or gold
Average Size 15mm-20mm 15mm
Habitat Eucalyptus forests Woodlands and urban areas

Both species are part of the Anoplognathus genus, which includes around 35 recorded species. Christmas Beetles are typically nocturnal and attracted to lights, making them more noticeable during the holiday season. These beetles can cause minor damage to eucalyptus trees, but their populations are generally kept in check by natural predators.

Habitat and Distribution

Geographical Range

Christmas beetles are native to Australia, primarily found in regions such as Sydney, New South Wales, and eastern Australia. Their range spans across various parts of the country, but they are most commonly observed along the eastern coast.

Preferred Environment

These beetles prefer to live in:

  • Woodlands
  • Forests
  • Native woodland areas

Christmas beetles are often found in environments where Eucalyptus trees thrive, as these trees provide their primary food source. The beetles prefer to lay their eggs in soil beneath the trees, allowing their larvae to feed on the tree roots during development.

Key features of Christmas beetles’ preferred environment:

  • Abundance of Eucalyptus trees
  • Access to soil for egg-laying
  • Native woodland areas for shelter

Examples of habitats:

  • Sydney’s Centennial Park
  • Forests in New South Wales
  • Eucalypt woodlands in eastern Australia
Habitat Christmas Beetles Presence
Eucalyptus Trees High
Woodlands High
Urban Parks Moderate
Rainforests Low
Deserts Very Low

Remember, Christmas beetles are native to Australia and thrive in regions with Eucalyptus trees, woodlands, and native forest areas. Keep an eye out for these fascinating creatures during the holiday season!

Life Cycle and Behavior


Christmas beetle larvae, also known as grubs, are typically found in soil where they feed on plant roots, particularly those of grasses. They are cream-colored and have a characteristic C-shaped body. Some features of the larvae include:

  • Cream-colored body
  • C-shaped posture
  • Feeding on plant roots


Once the grubs transform into adults, they emerge from the soil, generally around Christmas time in Australia. The adult beetles are known for their attractive, metallic colors which may vary between species. Adult Christmas beetles typically have the following characteristics:

  • Metallic-colored body
  • Active during the warm summer months
  • Attracted to lights at night

Feeding Habits

Christmas beetles have diverse feeding habits throughout their life cycle. Here are some examples:

  • Larvae: Feed on plant roots, especially grass roots
  • Adults: Mainly consume leaves, often targeting eucalyptus and other tree species

Reproduction and Development

The life cycle of the Christmas beetle begins with the female laying eggs in the soil. These eggs then hatch into larvae which will continue to feed on roots until they are ready to pupate. Some key points in their development are:

  • Eggs laid in the soil
  • Larval stage lasts several months
  • Pupation occurs in the soil before adult emergence
Stage Feeding Habits Characteristics
Larvae Plant roots (mainly grass) Cream-colored, C-shaped
Adults Tree leaves (e.g. eucalyptus) Metallic-colored, nocturnal

In summary, Christmas beetles experience various changes throughout their life cycle with feeding habits and appearances shifting between the larval and adult stages. Understanding their behavior is important for managing potential negative impacts on vegetation.

Colors and Variations

Christmas beetles come in an array of beautiful colors, with some common hues being golden brown, violet, and opal. These colors make them stand out during the holiday season.

  • Golden brown Christmas beetles have a warm and shiny appearance.
  • Violet Christmas beetles showcase a deep, rich hue with iridescent highlights.
  • Opal Christmas beetles possess a mesmerizing, multi-colored shimmer.

These color variations are not just for aesthetics; they can also play a role in the beetles’ habitat camouflage and mate selection.

Let’s make a comparison of these three vibrant color variations:

Color Appearance Purpose
Golden Brown Warm, shiny Camouflage, attract mates
Violet Rich, iridescent Camouflage, attract mates
Opal Multi-colored shimmer Camouflage, attract mates

In conclusion, the colors and variations of Christmas beetles make them a fascinating insect to observe and study during the holidays.

Christmas Beetles in Your Garden

Impact on Plants

Christmas beetles are known for causing damage to plants in gardens and yards. They are particularly fond of eucalyptus plants, but may also target other garden plants. The damage usually appears in the form of chewed leaves, with the insects consuming the soft, green parts and leaving the tougher veins behind.

These beetles can reduce the overall health and vigor of your plants, especially if a large infestation is present.

Prevention and Control Measures

There are various ways to manage Christmas beetles in your garden. Some effective methods include:

  • Regularly inspect plants: Early detection can prevent extensive damage. Always check your eucalyptus plants and other garden plants for signs of infestation.
  • Physical removal: Handpick beetles and dispose of them in a bucket of soapy water, especially in the morning or evening when they are more sluggish.
  • Use netting: Protect your plants with fine netting or cheesecloth to prevent beetles from reaching the foliage.
  • Implement biological controls: Attract natural predators, such as birds and beneficial insects, by encouraging a diverse ecosystem in your garden.
  • Pesticides: As a last resort, consider using pesticides specifically designed for beetle control. Follow the label instructions and only apply when necessary to minimize harm to other insects and the environment.

By taking these preventive and control measures, you can minimize the impact of Christmas beetles on your garden plants and protect your yard from damage.

Conservation and Decline

Causes of Decline

The decline of the Christmas beetle population can be attributed to a few factors. One major cause is habitat loss due to urbanization and land clearing. Another factor is the loss of native grasses, as the larvae depend on them for sustenance.

Some contributing factors to their population decline include:

  • Urban development
  • Land clearing
  • Loss of native grasses
  • Pesticide use

Efforts to Preserve Biodiversity

To help conserve the Christmas beetle and ensure its biodiversity, various grassroots efforts are being undertaken. One approach is to promote the planting of native grasses that support the beetle’s life-cycle.

There are also conservation programs aimed at preserving biodiversity by implementing effective ecological practices. For instance, the Natural Resources Conservation Service provides guidance to landowners on adopting sustainable management practices that benefit local ecosystems.

Some methods to preserve Christmas beetle biodiversity include:

  • Planting native grasses
  • Reducing pesticide use
  • Implementing sustainable land management practices
  • Supporting conservation programs

Comparison Table

Factor Urban Environment Conservation Effort
Habitat Limited Preserved
Grasses Scarce Abundant
Pesticide Present Reduced
Biodiversity Decreased Enhanced

By implementing these measures, we can help support the Christmas beetle population and maintain the ecological balance in their habitats.

Interesting Facts and Cultural Significance

Festive Season Behaviour

Christmas Beetles, belonging to the Anoplognathus spp family, are native to Australia and emerge during the festive season. Their presence often coincides with:

  • Thunderstorms
  • Warm weather
  • Increased plant growth

These red or golden-brown beetles are known for their feeding frenzy during this period, gnawing on eucalyptus leaves.

Comparison with Stag Beetles

Christmas beetles and stag beetles share some similarities, but they also have notable differences. To distinguish between them, here is a comparison table:

Feature Christmas Beetle Stag Beetle
Scientific name Anoplognathus spp Lucanus cervus
Family Scarabaeidae Lucanidae
Region Australia Europe, Asia, North America
Color Red or golden-brown Dark brown to black
Size 15-30 mm 24-75 mm (male)
Adults’ active period December-January (festive season) Spring-Summer
Diet Eucalyptus leaves Tree sap, decaying wood

While Christmas beetles can be considered pests due to their passion for eucalyptus leaves, stag beetles generally don’t cause significant harm to plants. On the other hand, stag beetles have a unique feature in males: elongated, forked mandibles which resemble stags’ antlers, while Christmas beetles have more typical rounded mandibles.

In summary, the key points about Christmas beetles are:

  • Native to Australia
  • Associated with festive season and thunderstorms
  • Red or golden-brown color
  • Feeding frenzy on eucalyptus leaves

And the key points about stag beetles include:

  • Found in Europe, Asia, and North America
  • Dark brown to black color
  • Males have elongated, forked mandibles
  • Generally not harmful to plants


  • Bugman

    Bugman aka Daniel Marlos has been identifying bugs since 1999. is his passion project and it has helped millions of readers identify the bug that has been bugging them for over two decades. You can reach out to him through our Contact Page.

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  • Piyushi Dhir

    Piyushi is a nature lover, blogger and traveler at heart. She lives in beautiful Canada with her family. Piyushi is an animal lover and loves to write about all creatures.

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4 Comments. Leave new

  • Could we see a picture taken from above. It would make the name suggesting easier:)

    • Hi mardikavana,
      Dean sent us four images, but we only posted 2. We will try to search for the email with the images.

  • It is very easy to give a name to it now because i can see the dorsal view. When I watched the picture the first time only one taxon came to my mind- subfamily rutelinae. So I would name this little beetle Australian Jewel Scarab, Plusiotis australiensis.(Christmas beetles should be in the same subfamily). Also let say that Plusiotis australiensis is endemic and very rare species:)


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