Carpenter ants and termites are often confused due to their similarities in appearance and behavior. However, understanding their differences can help homeowners identify and address potential infestations more effectively.
Carpenter ants, unlike termites, do not eat wood but instead nest in wet or water-damaged wood. These ants may extend their galleries into sound, dry wood, causing structural damage. Termites, on the other hand, actually consume wood and can cause considerable damage to buildings and structures over time.
To distinguish between the two insects, one can observe their physical characteristics. Carpenter ants have elbowed antennae, tinted brown wings with the front pair being longer than the hind pair, and a pinched or “wasp-waist”. On the contrary, termites possess straight antennae, and their front and hind wings are of similar shape and size, pale and translucent.
Carpenter Ants and Termites: Key Differences
Size and Appearance
- Carpenter ants:
- 1/4 to 1/2 inch in length
- Queens up to 3/4 inch
- 1/8 to 1 inch in length
Carpenter ants and termites differ in size. Carpenter ant workers vary in length from 1/4 to 1/2 inch, while termite workers range between 1/8 and 1 inch in length1. Adult carpenter ant queens can grow up to 3/4 inches long2.
Color and Body Shape
Carpenter ants come in various colors including black, red, or even a combination of both, while termites are typically white, cream, or light brown1 3. Carpenter ants have a slender waist and a rounded thorax. In contrast, termites possess a broad waist and a straight body shape4.
Antennae and Wings
- Carpenter ants: elbowed
- Termites: straight
- Carpenter ants: two sets of equal length
- Termites: one set longer than the other
Carpenter ants have elbowed antennae, whereas termites feature straight antennae4. Both insects have two sets of wings, but carpenter ant wings are equal in length, while termite wings of the front pair are longer than the hind wings 4.
Waist and Thorax
A key difference between carpenter ants and termites lies in the appearance of their waist and thorax4. Carpenter ants have a distinct, slender waist (petiole), joining their thorax to their abdomen. On the other hand, termite waist appears broader and less defined, as their thorax seamlessly connects to their abdomen 4.
|Size||1/4 – 1/2 inch (workers)||1/8 – 1 inch (workers)|
|Color & Body Shape||Black, red, or combination||White, cream, light brown|
|Wings||Two sets of equal length||Front pair longer than the hind pair|
|Waist & Thorax||Slender waist; rounded thorax||Broad waist; straight body shape|
Habits and Habitat
Nesting and Colonies
- Nest in damp or moisture-compromised wood, like dead or decaying trees, stumps, logs, and branches^[1^].
- Can create nests in building materials weakened by moisture, like houses, sheds, and lumber piles^[1^].
- Nest in soil and wood^[3^].
- Create colonies with a complex structure, including worker, soldier, and reproductive castes^[3^].
Diet and Feeding Behaviour
- Do not feed on wood, but create nests by chewing it^[4^].
- Consume a range of food, like honeydew from aphids, insects, and household items (sugar, pet food)^[4^].
- Mostly feed on cellulose from wood and plant matter.
|Preferred location||Damp wood, dead or decaying trees, structures||Soil, wood near soil, decaying wood|
|Moisture requirement||High moisture levels||Moderate to high moisture levels|
|Preference||Damaged/rotting wood, near water sources||Easy access to cellulose-based food|
Lifecycle and Reproduction
- Complete metamorphosis: egg, larva, pupa, adult^[4^].
- Queen lays eggs that develop into larvae, then pupae, and finally adults.
- Males produced during springtime mating season and die after mating.
- Incomplete metamorphosis: egg, nymph, adult^[3^].
- Molting process from nymph to adult.
- Swarmers (winged termites) produced during springtime. After mating, queen lays eggs which develop into larvae and then adults.
Damaged Wood and Mud Tubes
Detecting carpenter ant infestations in wooden structures relies on identifying the following:
- Damp, rotting wood as they prefer it for nesting.
- Tunnels (galleries) created in wood, leading to structural damage.
Termites infestations, on the other hand, involve:
- Mud tubes on exterior walls and foundations.
- Wooden structures with soft, hollowed-out spots due to their cellulose-based diet.
For both, check baseboards, doors, and walls for signs of damage.
Sawdust and Frass
Carpenter ants produce sawdust-like debris, also known as frass, when they excavate wood for nesting. Instead of consuming the wood, they expel frass near the nesting area.
Keep an eye out for frass near damp, rotting wood.
Termites don’t produce sawdust; instead, they consume wood, creating a completely different type of damage.
Swarmers and Flying Ants
Carpenter ant and termite infestations are often mistaken due to their winged reproductive forms called swarmers or flying ants. To distinguish them:
|Waist||Pinched (wasp-like)||Broad (straight)|
|Wings||Unequal length, clear||Equal length, translucent|
Key Signs and Indicators
In summary, detect infestations by looking for:
- Damp, rotting wood in wooden structures.
- Sawdust and frass near nesting areas (Carpenter ants).
- Mud tubes and cellulose damage in wood (Termites).
- Swarmers or flying ants (Distinguish by antennae, waist, and wings).
Methods of Control and Prevention
Chemicals and Insecticides
- Example: Common insecticides used to control ants and termites are pyrethroids, such as bifenthrin and permethrin.
- Pros: Highly effective in killing insects, wide range of applications.
- Cons: May be toxic to non-target organisms, risk of insecticide resistance.
One option to get rid of these pests involves the use of chemicals and insecticides. Professionals may use EPA-approved chemicals, such as insect growth regulators or desiccants.
- Examples: Diatomaceous earth, boric acid, essential oils.
- Pros: Less toxic to humans and pets, environmentally friendly.
- Cons: May be less effective, requires repeated applications.
Natural alternatives for controlling ants and termites include using diatomaceous earth or boric acid. Essential oils, like tea tree and eucalyptus oils, can also be effective repellents.
- Examples: Proper firewood storage, reducing moisture, sealing cracks and crevices.
Take preventive measures to keep your property free of these insects:
- Store firewood away from your home
- Keep gutters clean to reduce moisture
- Seal cracks and crevices to deter entry
- Example: Exterminator services
- Pros: Expert knowledge, access to effective treatments.
- Cons: Costly, not always eco-friendly.
If an infestation persists, seek professional help in the form of an exterminator who specializes in ant and termite control.
|Pests||Chemicals and Insecticides||Natural Alternatives||Preventive Measures||Professional Help|
|Carpenter Ants||Effective||Less effective||Recommended||As a last resort|
|Termites||Effective||Less effective||Recommended||As a last resort|
Potential Damages and Repairs
Extent of Damage
Carpenter ants and termites both cause wood damage, but their impact on structures differs.
- Carpenter ants: They excavate moist wood for nests, leading to less severe damage than termites 1(https://homegarden.cahnr.uconn.edu/factsheets/termites-and-carpenter-ants/).
- Termites: They consume wood, often causing more extensive structural damage over time which can compromise the integrity of the building.
|Wood||Excavate moist wood||Consume wood|
|Damage||Less severe||More severe|
|Burrows||Visible in wood||Hidden in wood/drywall|
Damaged wood must be addressed to avoid further issues.
- Carpenter ants: Locate and remove damaged wood, eliminate moisture problems, which are attractive nesting sites2(https://extension.colostate.edu/topic-areas/insects/carpenter-ants-5-554/).
- Termites: Assess the extent of damage and consult with a professional exterminator to eliminate the infestation before repairing or replacing wood.
Repairing damage from both carpenter ants and termites can become expensive if not handled promptly.
- Carpenter ants: Costs vary depending on the extent of damage and the specific repair required.
- Termites: Repair costs can be higher due to the more extensive damage caused by their wood consumption, potentially requiring major structural repairs.
In both cases, early detection and intervention can help reduce repair costs and prevent further damage to the property.
Over the years, our website, whatsthatbug.com has received hundreds of letters and some interesting images asking us about these insects. Scroll down to have a look at some of them.
Letter 1 – Termite
Subject: Bug Identification
Location: Charleston, SC
April 30, 2017 9:50 pm
We recently encountered these bugs inside our new build house. There have been several recently seen inside our house 5 months after moving in and we want to make sure they aren’t termites. Any and all help would be greatly appreciated. Thanks so much in advance.
This is a Termite. Just because the house was built recently, does not mean that it would be Termite free. You have no idea how long wood was stored or in what condition the house existed during construction.
Letter 2 – Termites
Subject: ID please?
Location: Bay Area Califirnia USA
April 5, 2016 5:41 pm
I wonder if you can positively ID this borer for me?
There are small holes in an oak tread and a piece of pine (I believe) trim base moulding connected to it: the first indication was a pile of (what looked like) wood particles on the tread below.
I removed the trim and sprayed the holes on the inside face of it and put it in my garage – when I inspected an few hours later, the larvae in the image were on the floor, close to the trim piece – I have to assume they crawled out of the piece.
Please find attached image – by my guess, I think they might be California Wood Boring Beetle Larvae? They are only a few mm long (by estimate)
Your advice is greatly appreciated!
Thank you for your extremely prompt response – it is most appreciated!
That is not such good news of course!
I had continued to do some research and although I wasn’t sure those were termites, the Frass definitely looked like a picture I saw
I should have of course taken an image of the frass before it was cleaned up.
Letter 3 – Termites
Subject: What is this
March 29, 2016 10:21 am
Hi i saw this in a pan and i wanted to know what this is.
Signature: Thank u
These are dead Termites and the discarded wings of Termite Alates after a nuptial flight.
Letter 4 – Termite
Subject: Household pest no one recognizes
Location: Los Angeles
September 11, 2012 6:18 pm
I’m wondering if any experts recognize this bug, which seems to hang out in the kitchen. Some of them have wings, which appear to be useless when it comes to flying. They don’t appear to be very bright or survivalists…they flail if they are knocked on their backs and seem to wander in circles and drown themselves if they walk into a sink drip. They show up in unexpected swarms during the day (in summer) and then disappear within hours. Thanks for any detective work!
Signature: KM, Los Angeles
You have Termites. See this matching image on BugGuide.
Oh man — I didn’t know they get so big that you can see them, or that they have wings. Thanks!