Where Do Tomato Hornworms Go During the Day? Unveiling Their Secret Hideouts

Tomato hornworms are common pests in home gardens, and they can be quite damaging to tomato plants. These large caterpillars are known for their impressive appetite, as they can devour the leaves and fruits of a tomato plant in a short period of time. You may be wondering where these creatures go during the day when they are not actively feeding.

During daylight hours, tomato hornworms tend to hide on the underside of leaves or within the branches of the plant. Their green color allows them to blend in with the foliage, making them difficult to spot. It is important to remain vigilant and keep an eye out for any signs of hornworm infestation, such as holes in leaves and black droppings on the ground.

To manage a tomato hornworm infestation, you can try several methods. One common approach is to hand-pick the caterpillars from the plants and dispose of them. However, if you’re struggling to locate these elusive pests during the day, you might want to try checking for them early in the morning or late in the evening when they’re more likely to be active.

Understanding Tomato Hornworms

Tomato hornworms are large caterpillars that belong to the Manduca quinquemaculata species and turn into five-spotted hawk moths as adults. You might come across these insects on your tomato plants.

Size and appearance: These caterpillars are among the largest ones you’ll find, measuring up to four inches in length. They start as small, yellow, or white larva and grow into pale green caterpillars with white, V-shaped marks on their sides. A distinct feature is their black “horn” on the last abdominal segment.

Life cycle: The life cycle of a tomato hornworm is quite fascinating. They overwinter as pupae in the soil, and adult moths emerge in late June. Female moths lay their small, shiny, and lime-green eggs on tomato plants, usually between July and early September in places like Pennsylvania. These eggs eventually hatch into caterpillars that turn into moths once they reach maturity.

Now that you know a bit more about tomato hornworms, you might wonder where they go during the day. These caterpillars can camouflage themselves on the green leaves of tomato plants, making it difficult for you to spot them. Keep an eye out for their damage and control them by picking them off your plants or using other pest management methods. By understanding their habits, you can keep your tomato plants hornworm-free and enjoy a bountiful harvest.

Where Do Tomato Hornworms Hide During the Day?

Hiding Spots

Tomato hornworms are crafty creatures that prefer to stay hidden during the day. They typically choose to hide on the upper parts of tomato plants, nestled among the leaves and stems. Sometimes, they can also be found concealed among pepper, eggplant, and potato plants, as these are part of the same Solanaceae family1.

Camouflage Techniques

Tomato hornworms have developed excellent camouflage techniques that help them blend in with their surroundings, making them even more difficult to spot. Their green coloration allows them to seamlessly blend in with the plant foliage. This camouflage makes it challenging for gardeners to detect their presence until they notice the damage caused by these voracious eaters2.

To detect these sneaky critters, be sure to carefully examine your plants and look for:

  • Chewed or missing leaves
  • Dark green droppings
  • White cocoons near the caterpillars3

By regularly checking your plants for these signs, you can efficiently manage tomato hornworm infestations and save your precious crops from damage.

Detecting Tomato Hornworm Infestation

Signs of Damage

Tomato hornworm caterpillars usually start feeding on the leaves of the upper parts of your plants. These caterpillars can blend in with the leaves due to their green color, making them hard to notice at first. They have the potential to cause significant damage to your garden by defoliating plants and even destroying the fruit1.

Locating Hornworms

To identify these caterpillars, look for-

  • Green, worm-like creatures with white markings on their body
  • A horn-like projection on their posterior end
  • Adult hornworms can sometimes be located using a blacklight flashlight4

A common method for finding these garden pests, especially during the day, is to look for their eggs. These eggs are usually laid by moths on the undersides of leaves. By carefully examining your leaves, you can identify and remove the eggs before they hatch and develop into caterpillars.

Droppings as Clues

Another clue for detecting a tomato hornworm infestation is their droppings. These are typically dark green or black, and their presence on your plants can indicate that hornworms are feeding on them1. By looking for these droppings and locating the source, you can help protect your garden from further damage.

In summary, when monitoring your garden for tomato hornworms, pay close attention to the signs of damage, the appearance of their eggs, and the presence of droppings. Identifying and addressing these infestations early can help keep your plants healthy and productive.

Tomato Hornworms in the Home Garden

Common Host Plants

Tomato hornworms mostly feed on plants from the nightshade family. Their primary targets include tomato plants, pepper plants, eggplants, and potatoes. These pests can cause significant damage to your plants if left unchecked.

Prevention Measures

To protect your plants against hornworms, consider implementing the following preventative measures:

  • Introduce beneficial insects such as ladybugs, lacewings, and parasitic wasps that feed on hornworms.
  • Plant dill and basil near your tomato plants, as these herbs are known to repel hornworms.
  • Regularly till the soil around your plants to destroy hornworm pupae and prevent adult emergence.

Manual Removal Techniques

If you spot hornworms on your plants, act quickly to manually remove them:

  1. Pick the hornworms off by hand: Examine your plants daily, paying close attention to the underside of leaves. Their well-camouflaged green bodies make them difficult to spot, so look for fecal droppings or damaged leaves as indicators of their presence.
  2. Use protective gloves: Hornworms can emit a foul odor, so it’s a good idea to wear gloves when handling them.
  3. Create a soapy water solution: Fill a bucket or container with a mixture of water and a few drops of insecticidal soap. Drop the hornworms into the solution to kill them.

Remember to keep a close eye on your garden, and don’t hesitate to implement these measures if you see signs of hornworm infestation. Together, these prevention and removal techniques will help ensure that your tomato crop stays healthy and hornworm-free.

Life Stages of Tomato Hornworms

Egg Stage

During the egg stage, female moths lay small, round, and shiny lime-green eggs on the underside of tomato plant leaves. These tiny eggs are usually found in clusters, making it easy to spot them.

Larval Stage

Once the eggs hatch, the caterpillars emerge in their larval stage. They are initially yellow or white in color, with no markings. As they grow, they become large, measuring up to four inches in length. These green caterpillars develop eight white, V-shaped marks on each side and have a black “horn” on their last abdominal segment. The larval stage is the most destructive phase, as the caterpillars feed on the leaves and fruits of tomato plants.

Characteristics of tomato hornworm caterpillars:

  • Pale green body
  • White V-shaped markings on the sides
  • Black horn on the last abdominal segment
  • Up to four inches in length

Pupa Stage

After 3 or 4 weeks of feeding, the caterpillars leave the plants and burrow into the soil to pupate. They transform into pupae, which are brown and resemble a small capsule. The pupae remain in the soil throughout the winter months.

Adult Stage

The adult stage begins as the pupae emerge from the soil as moths, usually during late spring or early summer. The adult tomato hornworm moth, known as the five-spotted hawk moth, has a wingspan of up to five inches and features a hairy, robust abdomen with yellow spots. These adult moths are strong fliers, commonly seen at dusk, hovering near tomato plants to lay their eggs.

Remember to keep an eye on your tomato plants during the growing season, inspecting them for the presence of tomato hornworm eggs, caterpillars, or damage. By understanding the life stages of these pests, you can better protect your plants and ensure a bountiful harvest.

Natural Predators and How They Help

Braconid Wasps

Braconid wasps are a type of parasitic wasp that help control tomato hornworm populations. They lay their eggs on hornworm larvae, the eggs hatch and feed on the insides of the hornworm. This ensures that the hornworm can no longer damage your plants.

Chickens

Chickens can be beneficial in managing tomato hornworms too. When released into your garden, they will peck at and eat the hornworms. Not only will this reduce the number of hornworms, but it also provides a natural source of protein for your chickens.

Birds

Some birds, such as bluebirds and sparrows, also help control hornworm populations. They feed on the hornworms and their larvae, keeping the numbers in check. Encouraging birds to visit your garden by providing birdhouses, feeders, and water sources can be a natural way to protect your tomato plants.

Beneficial Insects

Several other beneficial insects can help you manage hornworm infestations:

  • Green Lacewings: These insects feed on eggs and young hornworm larvae, effectively reducing their population.
  • Lady Beetles: Likewise, lady beetles prey on hornworm eggs and small larvae.

To attract these beneficial insects to your garden, consider planting flowers and herbs that provide nectar and pollen sources. This will not only help you control hornworms but also improve the overall health and diversity of your garden ecosystem.

Footnotes

  1. “Mistaken Identity: Tomato Hornworm or Tobacco Hornworm?” 2 3

  2. “Tomato hornworms and hummingbird moths are here”

  3. “Keep an Eye Out for Hornworms”

  4. https://ipm.ucanr.edu/agriculture/tomato/hornworms/

Reader Emails

Over the years, our website, whatsthatbug.com has received hundreds of letters and some interesting images asking us about these insects. Scroll down to have a look at some of them.

Letter 1 – Tomato Hornworm Pupa

 

whatsthisbug?
found in our garden in Southern California
thanks!
Robert

Hi Robert,
We suspect you found this near the tomato plants. It is a Sphinx Moth pupa, probably the Tomato Hornworm.

Letter 2 – Tobacco Hornworm eats peppers in Mount Washington

 

Subject:  Successful Identification
Location:  Mount Washington, Los Angeles, California
August 21, 2014
Tobacco hornworm according to whats that bug! Can’t believe how much it likes hot peppers. There were two of them and they decimated the leaves and chomped a couple of hot peppers. Yuck.
That was a big ugly bug! I’m glad it’s identified, but there were two of them. What if there are more?!?
Sent from outer space.

Tobacco Hornworm
Tobacco Hornworm

Dear Lisa Anne,
We are happy you were able to make use of the extensive WTB? archive to identify your Tobacco Hornworm.  We generally get several on our tomato plants toward the end of the season and we allow them to eat as many leaves as they want, and the do occasionally eat unripe tomatoes, but since we cannot possibly eat all the tomatoes we grow, we don’t fret.  If you find you cannot abide these Tobacco Hornworms eating your pepper leaves, you can try transferring them to native Datura that grows in nearby Elyria Canyon Park.  The adult Carolina Sphinx is a large and impressive moth.

Letter 3 – Tobacco Hornworm on Tomato Plants

 

Subject:  Do you do Caterpillars?
Location:  Mount Washington, Los Angeles, CA
July 13, 2015
Alien on our tomato plant. About 5″ long. ?
Sarah

Tobacco Hornworm
Tobacco Hornworm

Dear Sarah,
There are two related, similar looking caterpillars that feed on the leaves and occasionally the fruit of tomatoes.  You have the Tobacco Hornworm,
Manduca sexta, the larva of the Carolina Sphinx, which according to BugGuide, can be recognized by:  ” large green body; dorsal ‘horn’ (usually curved and orange, pink or red) on terminal abdominal segment; up to seven oblique whitish lateral lines, edged with black on upper borders.”  The caterpillar of the similar looking Tomato Hornworm, the caterpillar of the Five Spotted Hawkmoth, can be distinguished from the previous, according to BugGuide, because:  “The caterpillar has eight v-shaped stripes rather than the seven diagonal stripes of the similar Tobacco Hornworm (larva of Carolina Sphinx). The horn is also straight and blue-black rather than orange, yellow red. Unfortunately many images of these caterpillars found on the internet are misidentified. “

Letter 4 – Tobacco Hornworm on Jalapeno Plant

 

Subject: What is this bug?
Location: Sierra Vista , AZ
July 14, 2015 10:34 am
I found this bug on a jalapeño plant this morning. It eat the entire top of the plant overnight. Maybe a giant luna moth?
Signature: Margaret

Tobacco Hornworm
Tobacco Hornworm

Dear Margaret,
The Luna Moth is not found west of Texas and Oklahoma.  We just finished posting an image of a Tobacco Hornworm like yours.  Your individual in Arizona is eating a jalapeõ pepper plant while the one in Los Angeles is eating the leaves of a tomato plant.

Tobacco Hornworm on Jalapeño Plant
Tobacco Hornworm on Jalapeño Plant

Letter 5 – Tomato Hornworm

 

Subject: Sphinx moth or tomato?
Location: SW New Mexico – near Silvercity
February 7, 2017 9:01 am
Greetings, I thought this was a sphinx moth caterpillar but someone else suggested it was a tomato worm. BTW – there were definitely sphinx moths out the same day that I took this photo. But there was also a different kind of horn worm out there also.
Signature: Narglyph

Tomato Hornworm

Dear Narglyph,
Sphinx Moth Caterpillars and “Tomato Worms” are not mutually exclusive because several species of Sphinx Moths have larvae that feed on tomato and other plants in the family, and the larvae are known as Hornworms.  Your individual appears to be the dark form of
Manduca quinquemaculata, the Five Spotted Hawkmoth and its larva is known as the Tomato Hornworm which appears in both green and dark forms.  You can compare your individual to this very dark individual pictured on BugGuide.

Thanks – I took the photo a while ago and I didn’t get pictures of what it was feeding on. A friend is writing an archaeological report on sphinx moths and datura and wanted to make sure she was getting the photos labeled correctly. I will pass on the info to you.
marglyph

Letter 6 – Tobacco Hornworm

 

Subject:  Tomato Hornworm?
Geographic location of the bug:  Hawthorn Woods, Illinois
Date: 10/19/2017
Time: 11:10 AM EDT
Hi, I found this in my garden, used your site to identify it being a tomato hornworm, and wanted to forward you the photos.  Have a great day!
How you want your letter signed:  Joe B.

Tobacco Hornworm

Dear Joe,
The average gardener probably doesn’t care that this is actually a Tobacco Hornworm,
Manduca sexta, since it looks so similar to a Tomato Hornworm and both species feed on the leaves and fruit of tomatoes and related plants in the garden.  According to BugGuide:  “Larva: large green body; dorsal “horn” (usually curved and orange, pink or red) on terminal abdominal segment; up to seven oblique whitish lateral lines, edged with black on upper borders.   The similar looking Tomato Hornworm, Manduca quinquemaculata, has eight v-shaped stripes and a straight blue-black horn. These caterpillars are often confused and misidentified.”

Tobacco Hornworm

Reader Emails

Over the years, our website, whatsthatbug.com has received hundreds of letters and some interesting images asking us about these insects. Scroll down to have a look at some of them.

Letter 1 – Tomato Hornworm Pupa

 

whatsthisbug?
found in our garden in Southern California
thanks!
Robert

Hi Robert,
We suspect you found this near the tomato plants. It is a Sphinx Moth pupa, probably the Tomato Hornworm.

Letter 2 – Tobacco Hornworm eats peppers in Mount Washington

 

Subject:  Successful Identification
Location:  Mount Washington, Los Angeles, California
August 21, 2014
Tobacco hornworm according to whats that bug! Can’t believe how much it likes hot peppers. There were two of them and they decimated the leaves and chomped a couple of hot peppers. Yuck.
That was a big ugly bug! I’m glad it’s identified, but there were two of them. What if there are more?!?
Sent from outer space.

Tobacco Hornworm
Tobacco Hornworm

Dear Lisa Anne,
We are happy you were able to make use of the extensive WTB? archive to identify your Tobacco Hornworm.  We generally get several on our tomato plants toward the end of the season and we allow them to eat as many leaves as they want, and the do occasionally eat unripe tomatoes, but since we cannot possibly eat all the tomatoes we grow, we don’t fret.  If you find you cannot abide these Tobacco Hornworms eating your pepper leaves, you can try transferring them to native Datura that grows in nearby Elyria Canyon Park.  The adult Carolina Sphinx is a large and impressive moth.

Letter 3 – Tobacco Hornworm on Tomato Plants

 

Subject:  Do you do Caterpillars?
Location:  Mount Washington, Los Angeles, CA
July 13, 2015
Alien on our tomato plant. About 5″ long. ?
Sarah

Tobacco Hornworm
Tobacco Hornworm

Dear Sarah,
There are two related, similar looking caterpillars that feed on the leaves and occasionally the fruit of tomatoes.  You have the Tobacco Hornworm,
Manduca sexta, the larva of the Carolina Sphinx, which according to BugGuide, can be recognized by:  ” large green body; dorsal ‘horn’ (usually curved and orange, pink or red) on terminal abdominal segment; up to seven oblique whitish lateral lines, edged with black on upper borders.”  The caterpillar of the similar looking Tomato Hornworm, the caterpillar of the Five Spotted Hawkmoth, can be distinguished from the previous, according to BugGuide, because:  “The caterpillar has eight v-shaped stripes rather than the seven diagonal stripes of the similar Tobacco Hornworm (larva of Carolina Sphinx). The horn is also straight and blue-black rather than orange, yellow red. Unfortunately many images of these caterpillars found on the internet are misidentified. “

Letter 4 – Tobacco Hornworm on Jalapeno Plant

 

Subject: What is this bug?
Location: Sierra Vista , AZ
July 14, 2015 10:34 am
I found this bug on a jalapeño plant this morning. It eat the entire top of the plant overnight. Maybe a giant luna moth?
Signature: Margaret

Tobacco Hornworm
Tobacco Hornworm

Dear Margaret,
The Luna Moth is not found west of Texas and Oklahoma.  We just finished posting an image of a Tobacco Hornworm like yours.  Your individual in Arizona is eating a jalapeõ pepper plant while the one in Los Angeles is eating the leaves of a tomato plant.

Tobacco Hornworm on Jalapeño Plant
Tobacco Hornworm on Jalapeño Plant

Letter 5 – Tomato Hornworm

 

Subject: Sphinx moth or tomato?
Location: SW New Mexico – near Silvercity
February 7, 2017 9:01 am
Greetings, I thought this was a sphinx moth caterpillar but someone else suggested it was a tomato worm. BTW – there were definitely sphinx moths out the same day that I took this photo. But there was also a different kind of horn worm out there also.
Signature: Narglyph

Tomato Hornworm

Dear Narglyph,
Sphinx Moth Caterpillars and “Tomato Worms” are not mutually exclusive because several species of Sphinx Moths have larvae that feed on tomato and other plants in the family, and the larvae are known as Hornworms.  Your individual appears to be the dark form of
Manduca quinquemaculata, the Five Spotted Hawkmoth and its larva is known as the Tomato Hornworm which appears in both green and dark forms.  You can compare your individual to this very dark individual pictured on BugGuide.

Thanks – I took the photo a while ago and I didn’t get pictures of what it was feeding on. A friend is writing an archaeological report on sphinx moths and datura and wanted to make sure she was getting the photos labeled correctly. I will pass on the info to you.
marglyph

Letter 6 – Tobacco Hornworm

 

Subject:  Tomato Hornworm?
Geographic location of the bug:  Hawthorn Woods, Illinois
Date: 10/19/2017
Time: 11:10 AM EDT
Hi, I found this in my garden, used your site to identify it being a tomato hornworm, and wanted to forward you the photos.  Have a great day!
How you want your letter signed:  Joe B.

Tobacco Hornworm

Dear Joe,
The average gardener probably doesn’t care that this is actually a Tobacco Hornworm,
Manduca sexta, since it looks so similar to a Tomato Hornworm and both species feed on the leaves and fruit of tomatoes and related plants in the garden.  According to BugGuide:  “Larva: large green body; dorsal “horn” (usually curved and orange, pink or red) on terminal abdominal segment; up to seven oblique whitish lateral lines, edged with black on upper borders.   The similar looking Tomato Hornworm, Manduca quinquemaculata, has eight v-shaped stripes and a straight blue-black horn. These caterpillars are often confused and misidentified.”

Tobacco Hornworm

Reader Emails

Over the years, our website, whatsthatbug.com has received hundreds of letters and some interesting images asking us about these insects. Scroll down to have a look at some of them.

Reader Emails

11146

Letter 1 – TOMATO BUGS!

 

I just finished reading your letter about the evil “tomato bugs”. On a 3 day weekend last year 4 of the nasty guys destroyed 3 of my tomato plants. I DO NOT want this to happen again. I was wondering what they look like when they are just starting out their reign of terror. I have only ever seen pictures of them when they were about 3 inches long. Also where do they come from, and is there a way of preventing their arival at all?

Dear Stephanie,
I’m sorry for the delay in this reply. Somehow, your letter got lost in cyberspace. “Tomato bugs” are the larval stage of a sphinx moth, Manduca sexta. They begin life as eggs and hatch into tiny caterpillars about 1/4 inch long. They are green, and their coloration combined with their lighter traverse markings help them to blend into the foliage of the tomato plants they feed upon. Look for them on the undersides of the leaves where they prefer to hang. Often the first evidence that there is a tomato hornworm is the presence of their telltale droppings along with nibbled leaves. They eat the soft portion of the leaf, leaving only the stems behind. Diligence is your best defence. Spend time with your plants, especially when they are young, and search for evidence of grazing hornworms daily.

Letter 2 – Tomato Bugs

 

HHHHHHEEELLLLLLLLPPPPPPP!!!!
I’ve grown tomatoes for years, and recently moved. When I go out to my garden, EVERYTIME a tomato starts to turn red, something eats a hole in it. I thought it was worms, but I have sprayed for them twice, with no results. Today when I went out, one of the tomatoes had split at the top (due to the weather), and there were little bugs with wings inside them, they had red heads. Is that what keeps eating my red tomatoes?? Please help me, I’m loosing my mind. Whatever it is, it only eats a hole the size of a half dollar, then moves on to the next, and doesn’t seem to be bothering anything else in my garden. Thank you soooo very much, hopefully you have an answer for me.
Kristi

Hi Kristi,
I suspect birds. I have mockingbirds that frequently nibble my ripe tomatoes. Also squirrels. I have taken to draping the plants with tulle, or netting, when the tomatoes begin to ripen. Tomato bugs, or tomato horn worms, occasionally nibble the tomatoes, but usually the green ones. They also defoliate the plants, and you should be able to find them because of their droppings. Good luck.

OMG,,,,,,, i never thought of that!! We do have mocking birds living next door. We watch them attack the neighborhood cats. Funny that the tomato’s usually only have holes toward the bottom of the plant. Maybe because the birds are short?? What can i cover them with so they can’t get through? I’m afraid they can get their beady little beaks through the netting??? Thank you soooooo much for your advice. You have no idea how much this helps me!!

Hi Kristi,
Some garden shops sell a black or green netting that is more durable than tulle. I got it at Home Depot. I haven’t had a problem with the tulle. The netting at the garden shop has a stronger weave with larger holes, and it can be reused from year to year. Remember, everyone loves tomatoes, even birds and small mammals. The position of the holes probably has something to do with where the birds perch while eating.

You are awesome,,, Thank you so very much for taking time out of your busy day to help others. I think that is wonderful!!! May God bless you richly. 🙂

Letter 3 – Identifying the Tomato Bug

 

The publicist at Penguin/Perigee requested that Daniel make a video to stir up interest in radio and television appearances prior to the release of The Curious World of Bugs.  Here is a simple home video of Daniel in the tomato patch:

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MSaEAuFzbZI

Though a Tomato Bug, which is Grandma Nanowsky’s name for either a Tomato Hornworm or a Tobacco Hornworm, could not be located at the time the video was shot, there is nonetheless some helpful information contained in the video on these large green caterpillars that feed on the leaves of tomato and related plants.

Reader Emails

Over the years, our website, whatsthatbug.com has received hundreds of letters and some interesting images asking us about these insects. Scroll down to have a look at some of them.

Letter 1 – Tomato Bugs

 

I am new to growing tomatoes, and am currently having mixed results. I live in the DFW area and planted the young plants about 4 weeks ago (middle of April). They have been growing well, but there is a slight mystery. One of the plants (an heirloom variety) has leaves that are looking scrunched up. Almost as if they have been lightly squashed in hand. Another plant is having trouble keeping its flowers. Flowers show in nice little yellow clumps, and then all of a sudden they are broken off – almost like they are cut or bitten through leaving a kind of stumpy growth. I would love to know what is doing that and what to do about it.
Thanks in advance
Christopher Bird
PS Please don’t publicize the email address, I have been spam free for 3 years! Thanks

Dear Christopher,
Heirloom varieties often have potato type leaves. This is no indication that the plants are unhealthy. Blossoms will not set fruit until the nighttime temperatures are warm. Don’t fret.

Authors

    by
  • Bugman

    Bugman aka Daniel Marlos has been identifying bugs since 1999. whatsthatbug.com is his passion project and it has helped millions of readers identify the bug that has been bugging them for over two decades. You can reach out to him through our Contact Page.

    View all posts
  • Piyushi Dhir

    Piyushi is a nature lover, blogger and traveler at heart. She lives in beautiful Canada with her family. Piyushi is an animal lover and loves to write about all creatures.

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2 thoughts on “Where Do Tomato Hornworms Go During the Day? Unveiling Their Secret Hideouts”

  1. I wonder if your friend ever finished her report or if her notes are still safe? I’m from near St George UT. Came here 40 years ago and at that time there still a few Paiute elders who spoke English as a second language. That one old lady used to have access to people’s tomato patches. She would go in there and gather these caterpillars. She would squeeze the guts out and drop the good part into her bucket. I never did hear how they are cooked but i will guess they are parched or toasted.
    Sometimes i see these “hornworms” on Datura plants and i wonder what she would have to say about that.

    Reply

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