Where Do Leopard Slugs Live: Uncovering Their Natural Habitat

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Leopard slugs, scientifically known as Limax maximus, are fascinating creatures that you might come across in your garden or nearby natural areas. Known for their striking appearance, these slugs are easily identifiable by their spotted, leopard-like pattern and can grow up to six inches in length.

As you might be curious about where these intriguing slugs live, it’s important to note that they are quite versatile and can be found across a variety of habitats. Primarily, they prefer damp, cool places with ample food sources, such as gardens, woodlands, and urban environments. One interesting fact about leopard slugs is that they are not native to the United States but have successfully established themselves throughout many regions.

When you’re exploring your garden or local park, you may very well come across a leopard slug feasting on decaying plants or mushrooms. These adaptable creatures have an impressive ability to thrive in diverse environments, so keep an eye out for these unique gastropods and appreciate the role they play in our ecosystems.

Habitats of Leopard Slugs

Geographical Distribution

Leopard slugs, also known as Limax maximus, can be found across various continents and regions, originating from Europe but now residing in numerous other places. Their distribution includes:

  • Europe
  • Australia
  • North America
  • North Africa
  • Asia Minor

These slugs have successfully adapted to various climates and environments, making them an invasive species in some areas.

Specific Habitats

Leopard slugs prefer damp and terrestrial environments, making them a common sight in:

  • Gardens
  • Cellars
  • Woods
  • Forests
  • Fields
  • Lawns
  • Urban areas
  • Parks
  • Buildings

To give you an idea of the variety of habitats they can survive in, here are some examples:

  • In a cozy garden, they may live under flower pots or leaves to stay damp during the day.
  • In damp cellars, they can avoid direct sunlight and keep moist, ensuring their survival.
  • In urban areas, parks, and buildings, they can easily find shelter beneath rocks or other hiding places.

Remember, leopard slugs can be a nuisance, but they are an essential part of the ecosystem, aiding in breaking down organic matter and serving as a food source for other animals. So next time you see a leopard slug in your garden, know he’s just trying to find his way home.

Physical Attributes and Identification

Description and Color

Leopard slugs (Limax maximus) are one of the largest keeled slugs in the gastropoda family. Their common appearance consists of a brown body with unique dark spots and lighter brown to yellowish stripes. Some key features include:

  • Dark spots on a light brown or yellowish background
  • Black spots surrounded by lighter areas
  • Brown body with yellowish stripes

Simply put, their color patterns resemble that of a leopard, hence the name.

Unique Body Parts

These invertebrates are known for their distinctive body parts that aid in their identification. Some unique parts include:

  • Mantle: This part covers the upper portion of the slug’s body, and in leopard slugs, it has a unique net-like pattern.

  • Mucus: Like other land snails and slugs, leopard slugs produce mucus, which helps in movement and protection. Their mucus is often colorless and not as sticky as some other species.

  • Tentacles: Leopard slugs have two pairs of tentacles on their head, with the upper pair being longer and housing their eyes, while the lower pair is shorter and functions as sensory organs.

  • Shell: Although not externally visible, leopard slugs have a small, internal shell hidden under their mantle, which offers additional protection.

Knowing these features, you can easily identify a leopard slug and appreciate their unique presence in the world of invertebrates.

Reproductive Behavior

Leopard slugs are fascinating creatures, especially when it comes to their reproductive behavior. These slugs are hermaphrodites, meaning they possess both male and female reproductive organs. This unique feature allows them to mate with any other adult leopard slug they encounter.

During the mating ritual, leopard slugs engage in an entwined dance. They first locate a suitable mate and then initiate a series of movements to become entangled with each other. This fascinating display can last for hours, with the slugs maneuvering their bodies in unison.

As part of this ritual, leopard slugs perform a unique aerial mating display. They suspend themselves from a mucus thread, dangling in mid-air as they exchange sperm. This remarkable behavior not only showcases their acrobatic prowess but also helps ensure successful reproduction.

Some key features of leopard slug reproductive behavior include:

  • Hermaphroditism, allowing them to mate with any adult leopard slug
  • Entwined mating dance, displaying a fascinating array of movements
  • Aerial mating, where slugs suspend themselves from a mucus thread to exchange sperm

In conclusion, the reproductive behavior of the leopard slug is an intriguing and distinctive aspect of their biology. Their hermaphroditic nature and complex mating rituals demonstrate the fascinating adaptability of these creatures in the wild.

Dietary Patterns

Typical Food Sources

Leopard slugs primarily feed on various forms of plant material and fungi. They may eat leaves, flowers, and herbs found in plants, as well as roots and the fungus that grows on decaying matter. Here is a short list of some common food sources for leopard slugs:

  • Leaves
  • Flowers
  • Herbs
  • Roots
  • Fungi

Feeding Habits and Exceptions

Although these slugs usually have a detritivore and herbivorous diet, there are instances where they showcase carnivorous feeding habits. For example, if your pet food or faeces are left outdoors, leopard slugs may be attracted to them. They can also occasionally feed on ornamental plants in your garden.

To better understand and compare their feeding habits, here is a table presenting the typical and exceptional food sources:

Typical Food Sources Exceptional Food Sources
Leaves Cat food
Flowers Pet faeces
Herbs Ornamental plants
Roots
Fungi

Remember to keep an eye on what you leave outside to prevent leopard slugs from causing any potential harm to your flower beds or eating your pet’s food.

Interaction with Humans and Ecosystem

Leopard slugs, also known as great grey slugs or giant garden slugs, are a species of slug that can have both positive and negative interactions with humans and the ecosystem. They are considered generalist creatures, adapting well to various environments.

In some cases, they can be beneficial, as they feed on decaying organic matter, contributing to nutrient cycling in the ecosystem. They occasionally even eat other pests, like snails, helping to control their populations.

However, there are instances where leopard slugs can become an invasive species, posing a threat to native flora and fauna. For instance, in areas where they have been introduced to, they can outcompete native slug species for limited resources. Moreover, they can damage plants and crops while feeding, causing economic losses for farmers and gardeners.

When it comes to interactions between leopard slugs, humans, and ecosystems, it’s essential to strike a balance. In certain situations, they can be advantageous, but in others, they may threaten local ecosystems.

Here’s a quick comparison table to summarize their pros and cons:

Pros Cons
Contributes to nutrient cycling in ecosystems Can become an invasive species and outcompete native fauna
Feeds on other pests like snails Damage plants and crops, resulting in economic losses

By understanding their role in the ecosystem and their potential impact, you can make informed decisions about whether to encourage or discourage their presence in your garden, farm, or local natural habitat.

Reader Emails

Over the years, our website, whatsthatbug.com has received hundreds of letters and some interesting images asking us about these insects. Scroll down to have a look at some of them.

Letter 1 – White Slug

 

Subject: Albino Slug?
Location: Virginia
May 26, 2016 10:18 pm
I took a picture of a white slug this morning on my walkway……is it an Albino Slug or someone suggested it was a Ghost Slug, but what I’ve read, they live in Europe and I’m in Virginia.
Signature: Susan Myers

White Slug
White Slug

Dear Susan,
There is not enough detail in your image to check off the characteristics of the Ghost Slug, a species found in Europe.  We just posted another request for the identification of a White Slug found in Maryland, and we concluded it was not a Ghost Slug.  We will be postdating your request to go live while we are away from the office in June.

Letter 2 – Slug from Brazil

 

Subject:  cute little slug
Geographic location of the bug:  Paraná,Brazil
Date: 08/13/2021
Time: 01:26 AM EDT
Your letter to the bugman:  okay first, I would like to thank you for your service, I have deep respect for anyone whose uses their scientific knowledge to help others and incentivizes them to use/learn scientific thought
now regarding the slugs
from time to time I find these cute little slugs in my garden, I’m pretty sure this one is a adult as most I have seen have a similar size (something around 1.5 cm), oddly enough I always find them in pairs (which probably is just a coincidence), they seen to be pretty common as I have found them in several distinct locations, also their eyes are a little bit longer than that, I suppose the camera flash scared it, which led to it slightly retracting it’s eyes.
even though the picture isn’t in high-resolution, I hope it’s enough to help identify these adorable slimy creatures.
How you want your letter signed:  Mr.K

Slug

Dear Mr.K,
Thanks so much for your kind words.  Alas, we are unable to provide you with anything more than you already knew.  This is a Slug, a Mollusc in the class Gastropoda

Letter 3 – Slug from Italy

 

Subject: Creature from Italy
Location: Rome (Italy)
December 29, 2012 5:07 am
Hi bugman,
My sister found this creature on her balcony. Looks like a slug, but I have never seen one with this head. It looks like an alligator or a dragon.
Do you know what this is?
Thank you, as always, for your help!
Signature: Saverio

Slug

Hi Saverio,
You should have trusted your instincts.  This really is a Slug, and we are very curious how it got up to your sister’s balcony as they like to maintain contact with damp earth.  We love the Happy New Year greeting.

Letter 4 – Slug from the Lesser Antilles

 

Subject: Slug from Lesser Antilles
Location: Saint Martin, West Indies
January 18, 2013 6:18 am
Hi.
I wonder if you might know anyone who could identify this slug. It’s from Saint Martin in the Lesser Antilles. The more common slug here is the Caribbean leatherleaf (Sarasinula plebeia), which is very different in appearance.
Thanks!
Signature: Marc AuMarc

Slug

Hi Marc,
Though we do not know the answer, we are posting your image.  Susan J. Hewitt often writes in to identify our Molluscs.  We would recommend that you either monitor this posting on a regular basis or even better, provide a comment to the posting so that you will be informed of future activity with the posting.

Letter 5 – Slug Sex: Mating Leopard Slugs

 

slugs
Hello Bugman,
Stumbled across your site while looking for official names for "Hummingbird Moths". I took this photo many years ago and always wanted to know what these slugs are doing on the front of my house. I am assuming they are mating but need conformation. Thanks for the interesting website,it is now in my favorites.
Ken
Hatfield Pa

Hi Ken,
I think your slugs are redefining the exchange of bodily fluids. Slugs are hermaphroditic as well, each containing the organs of male and female. So a slug can mate with any other slug it meets. Awesome image and a welcome addition to our new Love Among The Bugs page.

Update (01/18/2006)
Those mating slugs on Bug Love page From:
Hi nice bug people, I love your site. I thought you might like to know that the pair of mating slugs are Limax maximus, the Leopard slug, which is an introduced species in the USA. Like all pulmonate gastropods, they are hermaphrodites. This large species is quite common around human habitation. You can see another picture, but not nearly as good as the one you have, at: www.fcps.k12.va.us/StratfordLandingES/ Ecology/mpages/leopard_slug.htm And there is a whole sequence of picture of a pair mating at: http://members.optushome.com.au/awnelson/davidavid/slug/ Although I am primarily a mollusk person, I also am fond of bugs. Invertebrates rule!
best to you,
Susan Hewitt

Letter 6 – Spotted Leopard Slugs Mating

 

Spotted Leopard Slugs Mating
April 21, 2010
Hi WTB!
I snapped these photos of a pair of what I think are Spotted Leopard Slugs doing the wild thing hanging from a thick strand of slime attached to the side of my house. At one point, there were two males trying to get to the female, but one fell off. This was the end result. A gooey sky blue slime wad. I never knew slugs mated like that! I thought maybe you could use this for your site.
Keep up the great work! I slug-love What’s That Bug!
Rebecca White
Charlotte, NC

Spotted Leopard Slugs Mating

Dear Rebecca,
The mating positions of these hermaphroditic Spotted Leopard Slugs is positively salacious.  All slugs are hermaphrodites, so you are mistaken in believing that the third member in the encounter was a male.  The close-up photograph you included is quite graphic, and viewers should exercise caution before reading more.
Several years ago we posted a photo of Spotted Leopard Slugs mating and that letter sparked quite a controversy.  You can read about it on our archive.

Spotted Leopard Slugs Mating

Reader Emails

Over the years, our website, whatsthatbug.com has received hundreds of letters and some interesting images asking us about these insects. Scroll down to have a look at some of them.

Letter 1 – White Slug

 

Subject: Albino Slug?
Location: Virginia
May 26, 2016 10:18 pm
I took a picture of a white slug this morning on my walkway……is it an Albino Slug or someone suggested it was a Ghost Slug, but what I’ve read, they live in Europe and I’m in Virginia.
Signature: Susan Myers

White Slug
White Slug

Dear Susan,
There is not enough detail in your image to check off the characteristics of the Ghost Slug, a species found in Europe.  We just posted another request for the identification of a White Slug found in Maryland, and we concluded it was not a Ghost Slug.  We will be postdating your request to go live while we are away from the office in June.

Letter 2 – Slug from Brazil

 

Subject:  cute little slug
Geographic location of the bug:  Paraná,Brazil
Date: 08/13/2021
Time: 01:26 AM EDT
Your letter to the bugman:  okay first, I would like to thank you for your service, I have deep respect for anyone whose uses their scientific knowledge to help others and incentivizes them to use/learn scientific thought
now regarding the slugs
from time to time I find these cute little slugs in my garden, I’m pretty sure this one is a adult as most I have seen have a similar size (something around 1.5 cm), oddly enough I always find them in pairs (which probably is just a coincidence), they seen to be pretty common as I have found them in several distinct locations, also their eyes are a little bit longer than that, I suppose the camera flash scared it, which led to it slightly retracting it’s eyes.
even though the picture isn’t in high-resolution, I hope it’s enough to help identify these adorable slimy creatures.
How you want your letter signed:  Mr.K

Slug

Dear Mr.K,
Thanks so much for your kind words.  Alas, we are unable to provide you with anything more than you already knew.  This is a Slug, a Mollusc in the class Gastropoda

Letter 3 – Slug from Italy

 

Subject: Creature from Italy
Location: Rome (Italy)
December 29, 2012 5:07 am
Hi bugman,
My sister found this creature on her balcony. Looks like a slug, but I have never seen one with this head. It looks like an alligator or a dragon.
Do you know what this is?
Thank you, as always, for your help!
Signature: Saverio

Slug

Hi Saverio,
You should have trusted your instincts.  This really is a Slug, and we are very curious how it got up to your sister’s balcony as they like to maintain contact with damp earth.  We love the Happy New Year greeting.

Letter 4 – Slug from the Lesser Antilles

 

Subject: Slug from Lesser Antilles
Location: Saint Martin, West Indies
January 18, 2013 6:18 am
Hi.
I wonder if you might know anyone who could identify this slug. It’s from Saint Martin in the Lesser Antilles. The more common slug here is the Caribbean leatherleaf (Sarasinula plebeia), which is very different in appearance.
Thanks!
Signature: Marc AuMarc

Slug

Hi Marc,
Though we do not know the answer, we are posting your image.  Susan J. Hewitt often writes in to identify our Molluscs.  We would recommend that you either monitor this posting on a regular basis or even better, provide a comment to the posting so that you will be informed of future activity with the posting.

Letter 5 – Slug Sex: Mating Leopard Slugs

 

slugs
Hello Bugman,
Stumbled across your site while looking for official names for "Hummingbird Moths". I took this photo many years ago and always wanted to know what these slugs are doing on the front of my house. I am assuming they are mating but need conformation. Thanks for the interesting website,it is now in my favorites.
Ken
Hatfield Pa

Hi Ken,
I think your slugs are redefining the exchange of bodily fluids. Slugs are hermaphroditic as well, each containing the organs of male and female. So a slug can mate with any other slug it meets. Awesome image and a welcome addition to our new Love Among The Bugs page.

Update (01/18/2006)
Those mating slugs on Bug Love page From:
Hi nice bug people, I love your site. I thought you might like to know that the pair of mating slugs are Limax maximus, the Leopard slug, which is an introduced species in the USA. Like all pulmonate gastropods, they are hermaphrodites. This large species is quite common around human habitation. You can see another picture, but not nearly as good as the one you have, at: www.fcps.k12.va.us/StratfordLandingES/ Ecology/mpages/leopard_slug.htm And there is a whole sequence of picture of a pair mating at: http://members.optushome.com.au/awnelson/davidavid/slug/ Although I am primarily a mollusk person, I also am fond of bugs. Invertebrates rule!
best to you,
Susan Hewitt

Letter 6 – Spotted Leopard Slugs Mating

 

Spotted Leopard Slugs Mating
April 21, 2010
Hi WTB!
I snapped these photos of a pair of what I think are Spotted Leopard Slugs doing the wild thing hanging from a thick strand of slime attached to the side of my house. At one point, there were two males trying to get to the female, but one fell off. This was the end result. A gooey sky blue slime wad. I never knew slugs mated like that! I thought maybe you could use this for your site.
Keep up the great work! I slug-love What’s That Bug!
Rebecca White
Charlotte, NC

Spotted Leopard Slugs Mating

Dear Rebecca,
The mating positions of these hermaphroditic Spotted Leopard Slugs is positively salacious.  All slugs are hermaphrodites, so you are mistaken in believing that the third member in the encounter was a male.  The close-up photograph you included is quite graphic, and viewers should exercise caution before reading more.
Several years ago we posted a photo of Spotted Leopard Slugs mating and that letter sparked quite a controversy.  You can read about it on our archive.

Spotted Leopard Slugs Mating

Reader Emails

Over the years, our website, whatsthatbug.com has received hundreds of letters and some interesting images asking us about these insects. Scroll down to have a look at some of them.

Reader Emails

Over the years, our website, whatsthatbug.com has received hundreds of letters and some interesting images asking us about these insects. Scroll down to have a look at some of them.

Authors

  • Bugman

    Bugman aka Daniel Marlos has been identifying bugs since 1999. whatsthatbug.com is his passion project and it has helped millions of readers identify the bug that has been bugging them for over two decades. You can reach out to him through our Contact Page.

    View all posts
  • Piyushi Dhir

    Piyushi is a nature lover, blogger and traveler at heart. She lives in beautiful Canada with her family. Piyushi is an animal lover and loves to write about all creatures.

    View all posts
Tags: Leopard Slug

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32 Comments. Leave new

  • how beautiful and disturbing

    Reply
  • Susan J. Hewitt
    December 29, 2012 7:57 pm

    This poor slug looks to have died from severe desiccation. I am assuming that during a damp or rainy night it may have crawled out from soil in a plant pot or a planter, and then been stranded and become dried out during the following sunny day. What appear to be dragon’s nostrils are the retracted eyestalks. This may have been a Deroceras species, but it is hard to tell now.

    Reply
  • Susan J. Hewitt
    January 20, 2013 3:22 pm

    This appears to be a very young juvenile, and it appears to be closely related to the leatherleaf slugs, because the mantle covers the whole entire body and foot of the slug including its head. On the other hand it seems to be translucent and narrow with a pointed tail.

    How big is it, and do they get a lot larger than this?

    If this is indeed a veronicellid, the only way to identify them to species level is to do a dissection of an adult and examine details of the genitalia. I don’t know enough to help you with this identification, but you could perhaps try asking one or more of the authors of this piece of research:

    http://www.zoologischemededelingen.nl/83/nr03/a13

    Reply
  • Hi Susan, I sent in the photo. I saw a few of these, and they are not so small, perhaps 3-6 centimeters depending on how stretched out they were. By comparison, I have seen juvenile leatherleafs that are much smaller, 1 cm or less, but look exactly like adults in color, texture, etc.

    Reply
  • Susan J. Hewitt
    May 9, 2013 9:40 am

    I guess I would need to see more images (and crisper, better illuminated images) to say anything else about these slugs. If they have a mantle that covers only their mid-section or their front end, so it looks a bit like a saddle, then that opens a lot of more possibilities, like maybe a species in the Limacidae. But those slugs would have four tentacles, a second smaller pair under the larger upper ones.

    Reply
  • Thanks, Susan. I can try to get more photos of these guys. For your reference, you can see some full-resolution photos here:

    http://www.flickr.com/photos/theactionitems/7728525818/sizes/o/in/photostream/
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/theactionitems/7728651966/sizes/o/in/photostream/

    In the photo at the second link you can see the second, smaller pair of antennae beneath the larger ones.

    Reply
  • Thanks, Susan. I can try to get more photos of these guys. For your reference, you can see some full-resolution photos here:

    http://www.flickr.com/photos/theactionitems/7728525818/sizes/o/in/photostream/
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/theactionitems/7728651966/sizes/o/in/photostream/

    In the photo at the second link you can see the second, smaller pair of antennae beneath the larger ones.

    Reply
  • Susan J. Hewitt
    May 11, 2013 5:43 am

    OK Mark. Try to photograph the largest one of these you can find, and try to make sure the whole body is in focus. You may want to take a small ruler along with you so you can place it next to the slug for scale.

    Do you mainly find them in places like gardens, fields, and other disturbed areas? Or do you find them only in the wildest parts of the island?

    And are they on trees on under logs on the ground, or what?

    If it’s difficult to photograph them in the wild (perhaps they only come out at night and after rain?) then maybe you could take a jar with you and put some damp vegetation in it, and that way you could take the slug home to photograph it, and then the next day (or night) return it to where it lived.

    Reply
  • Susan J. Hewitt
    May 11, 2013 5:43 am

    OK Mark. Try to photograph the largest one of these you can find, and try to make sure the whole body is in focus. You may want to take a small ruler along with you so you can place it next to the slug for scale.

    Do you mainly find them in places like gardens, fields, and other disturbed areas? Or do you find them only in the wildest parts of the island?

    And are they on trees on under logs on the ground, or what?

    If it’s difficult to photograph them in the wild (perhaps they only come out at night and after rain?) then maybe you could take a jar with you and put some damp vegetation in it, and that way you could take the slug home to photograph it, and then the next day (or night) return it to where it lived.

    Reply
  • So far, I have only seen them at night in a ravine on the tallest hill of the island, the only place where there’s some broadleaf forest on St. Martin. I may actually be there tonight, so I will try to get some additional photos.

    Reply
  • Susan J. Hewitt
    May 11, 2013 2:24 pm

    OK… then it sounds as if they are most likely native to the island if the hill is really a wild environment (Pic Paradis I assume?) and the vegetation there hasn’t really been much altered by human influence. I am by no means an expert on the Caribbean tropical land gastropod fauna, especially not the slugs, but maybe I can try to get in contact with someone who might know enough to be able to say what they are. It’s even possible that they could be something endemic to St. Martin. You are talking about the French half of the island, I assume?

    Reply
  • Yes, it is Pic Paradis, on the French side of the island. This slug is probably found other places, but Pic Paradis is one of the easiest forested spots to walk through at night. I believe Alejandro Sanchez has seen similar slugs on Puerto Rico, but he also hasn’t been able to ID them yet.

    Reply
  • I got a tip that it is an invasive Pallifera sp. from Alejandro Sanchez in Puerto Rico. I’m no slug expert, but it seems like a pretty reasonable ID to me.

    Reply
  • Susan J. Hewitt
    March 10, 2014 4:20 pm

    Sounds reasonable to me too. It is unfortunate though to have another invasive species.

    Reply
  • Saw the very same thing hanging from our watertank in the garden the other night. I was absolutely fascinated but didnt know what it was, now glad to have found the answer on your site!!

    Reply
  • John Slapcinsky
    December 3, 2015 5:49 pm

    I agree that this is a Pallifera.

    Reply
  • Susan J. Hewitt
    December 4, 2015 12:43 pm

    Thanks John.

    Reply
  • I found one that was unusually white and small just as i opened the door this morning, and its been cloudy misty and rainy all day. And I am in south africa

    Reply
  • Just saw one on my walk this morning, I’m in Virginia too.

    Reply
  • Hi Mr. Bugman…..
    So, that grayish mass hanging below the 2 slugs is actually the 2 penises intertwined?
    Are the penises coming out of their heads?
    Thank you for all you do for us!

    Reply
    • Alas, our editorial staff would need to research your question on slug anatomy, and rather than do that right now, we prefer to post a few new inquiries with images as there is so much unanswered email in our inbox. We are confident that Slugs are hermaphrodites, and they mate to exchange DNA.

      Reply
  • Hi Mr. Bugman…..
    So, that grayish mass hanging below the 2 slugs is actually the 2 penises intertwined?
    Are the penises coming out of their heads?
    Thank you for all you do for us!

    Reply
  • Also saw one on my window in new jersey

    Reply
  • Saw a white slug on sidewalk on the sidewalk in Altoona,pa this morning

    Reply
  • I saw one last night on my patio I live in Whittier, CA. This morning, my daughter found it at the bottom of our hot tub. Really gross looking thing. No antennae, black line down the bottom of it, and completely white everywhere else. Did not remind me of a slug but was very goopy slimy and had the shape of a slug.

    Reply
  • I recieved the same request, I suggested Deroceras laeve.

    Reply
  • I personally have never seen a white slug before, but I have kept slugs as pets. I would say it’s either the species of slug you mentioned or an albino slug which would be rare. it’s very cool that you saw one. I’m jealous. Lol

    Reply

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