Where Do Leafcutter Ants Live: Exploring Their Unique Habitat

Leafcutter ants are fascinating insects belonging to the Formicidae family of the Hymenoptera order. With over 47 species, leafcutter ants can be classified into two genera, Atta and Acromyrmex. These remarkable creatures are known for their unique behavior of cutting leaves and using them to cultivate a special type of fungus, which they depend on for food.

You might be wondering where these leafcutter ants live. Most leafcutter ant species are found in South and Central America, as well as parts of the southern United States. These ants usually establish their colonies in warm and tropical habitats, building intricate underground nests that can support millions of individuals.

In their colony, leafcutter ants work together in a highly organized social structure. Different castes of ants have specific roles, such as foraging for leaves, tending to the fungus garden, and raising the young. The queen ant, around which the entire colony revolves, is responsible for laying eggs and ensuring the survival and growth of the colony.

Leafcutter Ants’ Natural Habitat

Leafcutter ants are primarily found in the rainforests of South America, Central America, and parts of North America, such as Mexico, Costa Rica, and the southern United States. These ants live on the forest floor, creating a network of trails for transporting leaves.

In their natural habitat, leafcutter ants are adapted to various conditions, especially in rainforests where the environment is humid and warm. Some typical features of their habitat include:

  • High humidity levels
  • Dense vegetation
  • Abundant food sources (leaves and plant matter)

Comparing the habitats of leafcutter ants in different regions, you may find some similarities and differences. Here is a comparison table to demonstrate these contrasts:

Region Rainforest Presence Climate Major Leafcutter Ant Species
South America Yes Tropical Atta cephalotes and Acromyrmex octospinosus
Central America Yes Tropical Atta colombica and Atta cephalotes
Mexico Varied Varied Atta mexicana
Costa Rica Yes Tropical Atta cephalotes
Southern US Varied Varied Atta texana

Protecting the natural habitats of leafcutter ants is essential for their survival. When exploring these fascinating areas, remember to respect their environment and observe these creatures responsibly.

Home Structures and Habitats

Colonies

Leafcutter ants live in complex colonies that can house millions of individuals. These colonies have a highly organized social structure where each ant has a specific role. They’re usually found in tropical rainforests and grasslands. Some common habitats include:

  • Rainforests
  • Grasslands
  • Agricultural fields

Underground Nests

These ants build extensive underground nests that can reach depths of up to 7 meters. The nests consist of chambers and tunnels which serve various purposes, such as:

  • Fungus gardens for growing food
  • Waste management chambers
  • Living spaces for the queen and other colony members

The nests are often camouflaged by leaves and debris on the surface, making them difficult to spot. This also helps protect the ants from extreme weather conditions and predators.

Mounds

In addition to their underground nests, leafcutter ants construct mounds out of soil and debris:

  • These mounds can be over 1 meter high and several meters wide.
  • They serve as air vents to regulate temperature and humidity within the nest.
  • The ants maintain the mounds by continually adding or removing soil.

Key features of the mounds:

  • Made of soil and debris
  • Large in size
  • Act as air vents

Here’s a comparison of the different home structures and habitats of leafcutter ants:

Feature Colonies Underground Nests Mounds
Location Rainforests, grasslands, agricultural fields Concealed under the ground Aboveground
Function House the ant colony Provide shelter and specialized chambers Temperature and humidity control
Materials Organic matter Soil and debris Soil and debris
Size Can house millions of ants Up to 7 meters deep Over 1 meter high, several meters wide

Understanding leafcutter ants’ home structures and habitats can help you appreciate their complex and highly organized lifestyle within their colonies.

Dietary Preferences and Gardening

The Leaf Harvesting Process

Leafcutter ants are known for their unique and efficient leaf harvesting process. These ants select fresh vegetation, such as leaves, and use their sharp mandibles to cut them into smaller pieces. This method allows them to transport the leaf fragments back to their nest with ease. An example of their preferred plants include those containing high levels of leaf sap, which they use as a food source.

Fungus Cultivation

In addition to their leaf harvesting skills, leafcutter ants also excel in fungus cultivation. Within their nests, they create fungus gardens where they grow a specific type of fungus from the family Lepiotaceae. To achieve this, they use the leaf fragments they collect and lay them out in a controlled environment. This facilitates the growth of the desired fungus, which they can then consume as a primary food source.

To maintain a healthy fungus garden, leafcutter ants follow a few essential steps:

  • They constantly tend to the garden, removing any unwanted fungal growth or contaminants.
  • They provide fresh vegetation to ensure the suitable fungus has enough nutrients for growth.
  • They regulate the humidity and temperature within the nest, creating optimal conditions for the fungus to thrive.

In a sense, you could consider leafcutter ants as skilled farmers, expertly cultivating their fungus gardens to sustain their colonies. Their unique dietary preferences and gardening techniques demonstrate the incredible adaptability and intelligence of these small yet fascinating insects.

Caste System and Roles

In leafcutter ant colonies, there are different castes that play specific roles to ensure the survival and success of the colony. Each caste has unique features that help them effectively perform their duties.

Queens

  • Queens are large, reproductive females responsible for laying eggs.
  • They have strong jaws and an enlarged abdomen for storing eggs.
  • Queens can live for several years, and their primary role is to produce offspring and maintain the colony population.

For example, a queen in a leafcutter ant colony can lay thousands of eggs during her lifespan to ensure the growth and survival of the colony.

Workers

  • Worker ants are the most diverse and populous group in a leafcutter ant colony, and they consist of different sub-castes: minims, minors, mediae, and majors.
  • Each sub-caste has specific tasks, such as collecting leaves, maintaining the garden, and caring for larvae.
Worker Sub-Caste Role Features
Minims Tending to fungi gardens Small-sized ants, weak jaws
Minors Leaf harvesting, colony defense Medium-sized ants, multi-taskers
Mediae Leaf cutting, heavy lifting Larger-sized ants, strong jaws
Majors Defense, heavy-duty tasks Largest workers, large jaws, strong mandibles

Soldiers

  • Soldiers are large worker ants with specialized defense features.
  • They have elongated jaws, strong mandibles, and powerful exoskeletons to fend off intruders.
  • Soldiers are responsible for protecting the colony from potential threats and predators.

For instance, soldiers can use their spines and strong jaws to fight off predators such as spiders and wasps that try to invade the nest.

Drones

  • Drones are male ants with the main function of mating with the queen.
  • They are usually smaller in size compared to queens and soldiers but larger than worker ants.
  • Drones have wings for flying and a relatively short lifespan since they die soon after mating.

In summary, leafcutter ant colonies have a caste system that divides labor among different castes, each with specific roles and features. Queens lay eggs and maintain the population, workers handle diverse tasks, soldiers defend the colony, and drones contribute to reproduction. This efficient division of labor allows leafcutter ants to thrive in their natural habitats.

Life Cycle of Leafcutter Ants

Egg Stage

During the egg stage, queen ants lay the eggs, which eventually become the larval stage. The queen deposits her eggs in the nest, where they are cared for by the colony’s worker ants. The eggs are tiny, often smaller than a grain of sand, and can take a few weeks to hatch.

Larva Stage

In the larva stage, the eggs hatch into cream-colored larvae. The ant larvae are completely dependent on their colony members for food and protection. Worker ants provide them with a mixture of fungus, which the ants cultivate within the nest.

  • Larvae require constant care and attention
  • They grow rapidly, molting several times before reaching the pupa stage

Pupa Stage

When the larva is fully developed, it enters the pupa stage. During this stage, the larva spins a cocoon around itself and starts to transform into its adult form. The pupa stage can last for several weeks before the fully developed adult ant emerges.

  • Pupae resemble adults but are immobile and enclosed in a cocoon
  • Eventually, the adult ant breaks out of the cocoon

Adult Ant Stage

In the adult ant stage, the transformed ants become active members of the colony. Some ants become workers, foraging for food; others might become soldiers. In the spring, winged male and female ants, called reproductives, are produced to start a new colony. The reproductives take part in a nuptial flight, in which the male transfers sperm to the female.

  • Adult ants can be workers, soldiers, or reproductives
  • Males transfer sperm during the nuptial flight for future reproduction

Leafcutter ants have a fascinating life cycle, starting as small eggs and developing into diverse roles as adults within their colony. Their complex social structure ensures the survival and growth of their colony, contributing to their success as a species.

Leafcutter Ants and Their Environment

Relationship with Vegetation

Leafcutter ants have a unique relationship with the vegetation in their environment. They mostly live in the rainforest ecosystem, where you’ll find them using their powerful jaws to cut through leaves. These ants don’t actually eat the leaves; instead, they use them to grow a fungus that serves as their primary food source. A few examples of plants they use are:

  • Palo brea trees
  • Cornmeal
  • Oatmeal

The ants’ careful selection and processing of leaves help maintain the balance of the ecosystem.

Interaction with Other Animals

These ants don’t just interact with plants; they have relationships with other animals as well. Some insects, like the aphids, benefit from the ant’s protection in exchange for honeydew.

Moreover, leafcutter ants have natural predators, such as the armadillo, which helps maintain the ecological balance. They also serve as a food source for various animals in the rainforest.

Impact on Humans

Leafcutter ants have a mixed impact on human activities. On one hand, they might be seen as pests in agriculture, causing damage to crops by removing leaves and other plant parts. This can be detrimental to farming yields and the economy.

On the other hand, leafcutter ants are important contributors to the rainforest ecosystem. By maintaining the vegetation, they play a significant role in preserving biodiversity and supporting ecological balance.

In summary, you need to understand the complexity of leafcutter ants’ interactions with their environment and their effects on plants, animals, and humans. These little creatures have a significant influence on the ecosystem and demonstrate how interconnected life can be within the rainforest.

Unique Characteristics and Defenses

Leafcutter ants are fascinating insects with some truly unique characteristics. One of their most notable features is their specially adapted jaw that enables them to “saw” off pieces of plants. They vibrate these chainsaw-like mandibles a thousand times per second!

  • Body weight: These ants may be small, but they’re actually among the strongest animals on Earth, relative to their size. It’s not uncommon for them to carry leaf fragments several times their body weight.

  • Biomineral and magnesium: Amazingly, some leafcutter ants have a built-in biomineral armor. A type of magnesium called magnesium calcite is found in their exoskeleton, providing added protection.

  • Antimicrobials and toxic defenses: Leafcutter ants have a symbiotic relationship with the fungus they cultivate. In order to protect their precious fungus, the ants produce antimicrobials to fight off any invading microscopic threats. Some ants within the colony also have glands that produce toxic substances to deter predators.

In terms of defense, their small size doesn’t mean they’re defenseless. Leafcutter ants have a few tricks up their sleeves to protect themselves and their colonies:

  • Bites: Though their bites might not break human skin, they can still provide a painful pinch, especially when they clamp down with their powerful jaws.

  • Teeth: Leafcutter ants use their razor-sharp teeth not just for cutting leaves but also for warding off any potential threats to their colony.

Discovering the world of leafcutter ants, you’ll find they are amazing creatures with incredible adaptations to ensure their survival and success. Their unique characteristics and defenses make them a force to be reckoned with, even in the vast and competitive environments they inhabit.

Symbiosis and Mutualism in Leafcutter Ants

Leafcutter ants exhibit a fascinating symbiotic relationship with a specific type of fungus. As fungus farmers, they rely on this relationship to survive and thrive.

Symbiotic Partners

  • Leafcutter ants
  • Fungus (Leucoagaricus)
  • Bacterium (Pseudonocardia)

Leafcutter ants cultivate fungi from the Leucoagaricus genus as their primary food source. In return, the ants provide the fungus with cut leaves, which it decomposes to feed itself. Both partners benefit from this relationship, making it a prime example of mutualism.

However, there’s a third player in this symbiotic relationship: the bacterium Pseudonocardia. This bacterium lives on the ants and produces antibiotics that protect the fungus from harmful pathogens. This adds an extra layer of security to the ants’ farming system.

Remember, when observing these relationships:

  • Mutualism: Both partners benefit
  • Symbiosis: Living together

Here’s a simple comparison table to help you better understand this relationship:

Participant Role Benefit
Ant Farms fungus, provides cut leaves Access to a consistent and reliable food source
Fungus Decomposes leaves, provides nutrients to ant Stable environment and consistent food supply
Bacterium Produces antibiotics Protection from pathogens

In summary, the leafcutter ants, fungus, and bacterium form a complex yet highly efficient symbiotic system. This beneficial relationship allows them to overcome challenges in their environment, making it a fascinating example of cooperation in nature.

The Species of Leafcutter Ant

Leafcutter ants are fascinating insects that belong to the tribe Attini. These ants are known for their unique ability to cut and carry leaves back to their colonies.

There are various species of leafcutter ants, but one of the most commonly found is Atta cephalotes. These ants can be found in Central and South America, primarily in rainforests. They are also referred to as parasol ants due to the way they carry leaves above their heads.

Some characteristics of leafcutter ants include:

  • Small body size: Most leaf-cutter species are tiny ants, around 1-2 millimeters in length.
  • Highly organized colonies: Leafcutter ants live in complex societies with different castes, such as workers, soldiers, and the queen.
  • Ability to cultivate fungus: They use the leaves they collect to cultivate their primary food source, a fungus, in their gardens.

These ants face unique challenges like invading parasites and protecting their food source, making their survival and adaptation strategies impressive.

In comparison to other ant species, leafcutter ants excel at communication and teamwork. Their unique method of cutting leaves and carrying them to their colonies demonstrates their advanced cooperation and division of labor abilities.

So next time you spot these tiny ants carrying leaves like a parasol, you’ll know you’re observing one of nature’s most interesting creatures and their fascinating way of life.

Predators and Threats

Leafcutter ants face several predators and threats in their natural habitat. One of the main predators that pose a threat to leafcutter ants is phorid flies. These flies take advantage of the ants by laying their eggs on the ants’ bodies. When the eggs hatch, the larvae start consuming the ant from within, ultimately leading to the ant’s death1.

Apart from phorid flies, there are other predators that prey on leafcutter ants. These may include:

  • Birds, such as antbirds and woodpeckers
  • Insects, like other ant species and spiders
  • Reptiles, such as lizards and snakes

However, leafcutter ants have developed certain strategies to defend themselves against these threats. For example, they rely on their large numbers as well as their ability to communicate with one another to quickly respond to an attack.

Despite these defense mechanisms, predators and threats still pose a significant challenge to leafcutter ants’ survival. So, when observing these fascinating insects, it’s essential to recognize their role in their ecosystem and the various risks they face.

Leafcutter Ants Beyond America

Leafcutter ants mainly live in Central and South America, but did you know that they can also be found outside of these regions? Yes, you heard it right! Let’s explore their presence outside the Americas.

In Africa, there is a species of ants, known as Acromyrmex octospinosus, which is closely related to leafcutter ants. While they mainly originate from the Americas, they have managed to establish populations in some parts of Africa1. These ants also display similar behaviors and characteristics, such as:

  • Utilizing leaves for fungus farming
  • Living in large colonies with complex social structures
  • Having different castes for different tasks within the colony

However, there are a few differences between Acromyrmex octospinosus and the leafcutter ants found in the Americas. One notable difference is their primary habitat and the range of environments they live in. Here’s a comparison table to give you a better understanding:

Feature Leafcutter Ants in America Acromyrmex Octospinosus in Africa
Primary Habitat Rainforests, Deciduous Forests Tropical and Subtropical Areas
Range of Environments Limited Wider

Overall, while leafcutter ants have a strong presence in Central and South America, they also manage to exist beyond these regions, with some species being found in Africa. It’s fascinating to see how these ants can adapt and thrive in different environments.

Footnotes

  1. 5 Fascinating Facts about Leaf Cutter Ants 2

Reader Emails

Over the years, our website, whatsthatbug.com has received hundreds of letters and some interesting images asking us about these insects. Scroll down to have a look at some of them.

Letter 1 – Leafcutter Ant from Mexico

 

Atta laevigata
Location:  Tampico, Tamaulipas, México
September 18, 2010 4:08 am
Hi!
I just wanted to share with you guys this pic of an edible leaf cutter ant, they’re called ’hormigss chicatanas’ in the eastern coast of Mexico. They’re considered a delicacy, although I haven’t tryed them yet, word has it that they’re quite tasty and even a bit aphrodisiac.
This was taken about three months ago. They’re quite numerous during the summer.
Signature:  Rexnatus

Leafcutter Ant

Hi again Rexnatus,
We were lucky enough to see swarming Leafcutter Ants in Chiatla in the state of Puebla.  They emerged in June shortly after a rain.  We will be sure to tag them as Edible Insects on our site.

Letter 2 – Leafcutter Ant Queen from Costa Rica

 

Subject: Huge ant in Costa Rica
Location: Tortuguero, Costa Rica
June 6, 2017 4:35 pm
Hi Bugman,
In ten years of living in Tortuguero, Costa Rica, I’ve never seen this species of ant before. It was quite slow, and apparently somewhat blind. Hope you can help!
Signature: Jen

Leafcutter Ant Queen

Dear Jen,
This is a queen Leafcutter Ant, and we usually get images of winged alates when they swarm.  Once they have mated, they shed their wings and look for a place to establish a colony.  Here is an image from Ask A Biologist.

Leafcutter Ant Queen

Letter 3 – Leafcutter Ant Alate from Mexico

 

Subject: Winged insect in Batopilas
Location: Batopilas, Chihuahua, Mexico
July 3, 2015 5:32 pm
Recently stumbled across this hellish creature on a plaza in the village of Batopilas, which sits at a lower elevation in the Copper Canyons of Chihuahua, Mexico. The previous night brought heavy rains and the insects had been washed from their nesting points into the streets in large numbers; it gave me the sense of a spawning ritual, as nearly all were dead or dying. I have no background in entomology so I figured I’d petition you guys.–the answer could very well be overwhelmingly obvious, but thanks for taking the time to check it out.
Signature: Nico

Leafcutter Ant Alate
Leafcutter Ant Alate

Dear Nico,
Your speculation about the spawning ritual is 100% accurate.  This is an edible Leafcutter Ant in the genus
Atta, and they swarm with the summer rains.  Only the reproductive caste of Alates is winged, and a mated queen will start a new colony.

Letter 4 – Leafcutter Ant from Costa Rica

 

What species of ant Genus Atta
Location: Coto Brus, Costa Rica
October 8, 2011 6:24 pm
Hi! I loved your book. But living in Costa Rica in rain forest, it’s impossible to save all the spiders. We have thousands every day and every night in the house of all sizes. But that is off subject.
I’m attaching two photos of a very large leaf-cutter ant that I found in my garden. It was alone and I’ve never seen one like it before. The leaf-cutters we have here are all smaller and the heads of the soldiers are smaller than this thing. The white streak on the face may be a scar. It seems to have some sort of fungus growing on its head. I’ve looked at every site available online and can’t be sure of what I have. Can you help?
Signature: Mary B. Thorman

Leafcutter Ant

Dear Mary,
Thanks for the compliment on the book.  We agree that your ant is a Leafcutter Ant, though we do not have the necessary skills to pin down a species for you.  The large head and mandibles are indicative of the Leafcutter Ants.  We located a nice page on the Critter Images website that is devoted to Leafcutter Ants of Costa Rica.  That site directs folks to The Lurker’s Guide to Leaf Cutter Ants authored by A Sunjian for additional information.

Leafcutter Ant

 

Letter 5 – Leafcutter Ant from Costa Rica

 

Subject: Purple Big Ant Like Bug
Location: Costa Rica
August 14, 2015 12:45 pm
Hi,
I found this bug in my backyard.
Signature: no

Leafcutter Ant
Leafcutter Ant

This sure looks like a reproductive Leafcutter Ant that has already shed its wings.

Reader Emails

Over the years, our website, whatsthatbug.com has received hundreds of letters and some interesting images asking us about these insects. Scroll down to have a look at some of them.

Letter 1 – Leafcutter Ant from Mexico

 

Atta laevigata
Location:  Tampico, Tamaulipas, México
September 18, 2010 4:08 am
Hi!
I just wanted to share with you guys this pic of an edible leaf cutter ant, they’re called ’hormigss chicatanas’ in the eastern coast of Mexico. They’re considered a delicacy, although I haven’t tryed them yet, word has it that they’re quite tasty and even a bit aphrodisiac.
This was taken about three months ago. They’re quite numerous during the summer.
Signature:  Rexnatus

Leafcutter Ant

Hi again Rexnatus,
We were lucky enough to see swarming Leafcutter Ants in Chiatla in the state of Puebla.  They emerged in June shortly after a rain.  We will be sure to tag them as Edible Insects on our site.

Letter 2 – Leafcutter Ant Queen from Costa Rica

 

Subject: Huge ant in Costa Rica
Location: Tortuguero, Costa Rica
June 6, 2017 4:35 pm
Hi Bugman,
In ten years of living in Tortuguero, Costa Rica, I’ve never seen this species of ant before. It was quite slow, and apparently somewhat blind. Hope you can help!
Signature: Jen

Leafcutter Ant Queen

Dear Jen,
This is a queen Leafcutter Ant, and we usually get images of winged alates when they swarm.  Once they have mated, they shed their wings and look for a place to establish a colony.  Here is an image from Ask A Biologist.

Leafcutter Ant Queen

Letter 3 – Leafcutter Ant Alate from Mexico

 

Subject: Winged insect in Batopilas
Location: Batopilas, Chihuahua, Mexico
July 3, 2015 5:32 pm
Recently stumbled across this hellish creature on a plaza in the village of Batopilas, which sits at a lower elevation in the Copper Canyons of Chihuahua, Mexico. The previous night brought heavy rains and the insects had been washed from their nesting points into the streets in large numbers; it gave me the sense of a spawning ritual, as nearly all were dead or dying. I have no background in entomology so I figured I’d petition you guys.–the answer could very well be overwhelmingly obvious, but thanks for taking the time to check it out.
Signature: Nico

Leafcutter Ant Alate
Leafcutter Ant Alate

Dear Nico,
Your speculation about the spawning ritual is 100% accurate.  This is an edible Leafcutter Ant in the genus
Atta, and they swarm with the summer rains.  Only the reproductive caste of Alates is winged, and a mated queen will start a new colony.

Letter 4 – Leafcutter Ant from Costa Rica

 

What species of ant Genus Atta
Location: Coto Brus, Costa Rica
October 8, 2011 6:24 pm
Hi! I loved your book. But living in Costa Rica in rain forest, it’s impossible to save all the spiders. We have thousands every day and every night in the house of all sizes. But that is off subject.
I’m attaching two photos of a very large leaf-cutter ant that I found in my garden. It was alone and I’ve never seen one like it before. The leaf-cutters we have here are all smaller and the heads of the soldiers are smaller than this thing. The white streak on the face may be a scar. It seems to have some sort of fungus growing on its head. I’ve looked at every site available online and can’t be sure of what I have. Can you help?
Signature: Mary B. Thorman

Leafcutter Ant

Dear Mary,
Thanks for the compliment on the book.  We agree that your ant is a Leafcutter Ant, though we do not have the necessary skills to pin down a species for you.  The large head and mandibles are indicative of the Leafcutter Ants.  We located a nice page on the Critter Images website that is devoted to Leafcutter Ants of Costa Rica.  That site directs folks to The Lurker’s Guide to Leaf Cutter Ants authored by A Sunjian for additional information.

Leafcutter Ant

 

Letter 5 – Leafcutter Ant from Costa Rica

 

Subject: Purple Big Ant Like Bug
Location: Costa Rica
August 14, 2015 12:45 pm
Hi,
I found this bug in my backyard.
Signature: no

Leafcutter Ant
Leafcutter Ant

This sure looks like a reproductive Leafcutter Ant that has already shed its wings.

Reader Emails

Over the years, our website, whatsthatbug.com has received hundreds of letters and some interesting images asking us about these insects. Scroll down to have a look at some of them.

Reader Emails

Over the years, our website, whatsthatbug.com has received hundreds of letters and some interesting images asking us about these insects. Scroll down to have a look at some of them.

Authors

    by
  • Bugman

    Bugman aka Daniel Marlos has been identifying bugs since 1999. whatsthatbug.com is his passion project and it has helped millions of readers identify the bug that has been bugging them for over two decades. You can reach out to him through our Contact Page.

  • Piyushi Dhir

    Piyushi is a nature lover, blogger and traveler at heart. She lives in beautiful Canada with her family. Piyushi is an animal lover and loves to write about all creatures.

2 thoughts on “Where Do Leafcutter Ants Live: Exploring Their Unique Habitat”

  1. AlexGreat photoshop job on the queen and weorkr thoracic morphology. I will venture a prediction that those photographs might just become a classic illustration in a future textbook on social insects.Another sure fire way of identifying the queen among the weorkrs is also very clear in evidence in your first image of the Atta texana queen. All flying queens have very obvious ocelli those three little single eyes on the forehead’. Those are absent in weorkrs since the ocelli, in most flying insects, are a key component in maintaining flight stability eg. the ocelli aide in determining the horizon while the insects are on the wing. Classic experiments have shown flying insects with their ocelli covered to be unable to fly upright’ in their attempts to fly their inability to determine the horizon results in them literally spiralling out of control either hitting easily avoidable obstacles or just crashing into the ground.

    Reply

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