Peacock Butterfly: Identifying Characteristics and Surprising Fun Facts Revealed

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The Peacock Butterfly is an eye-catching species known for its vibrant colors and striking pattern. With distinct eye spots adorning its wings resembling those of a peacock’s plumage, this butterfly lives up to its name and is truly a wonder to behold.

In terms of habitat, the Peacock Butterfly can be found in gardens, woodlands, and meadows, where it feeds on nectar from various flowers. A key aspect of this species’ life cycle is its ability to sense temperature, enabling it to adjust its behavior during warmer periods for optimal survival and reproduction.

Physical Description of Peacock Butterfly


The Peacock Butterfly has a wingspan ranging between 50-63 mm, making it a moderately sized butterfly. These elegant creatures can be spotted fluttering around with ease.


One of the most striking features of the Peacock Butterfly is the eyespots found on both its forewings and hindwings. These eyespots are thought to serve as a defense mechanism, scaring off potential predators by mimicking the eyes of larger animals.

Color Variations

The Peacock Butterfly displays a variety of colors across its wings. A quick overview of its major color variations is as follows:

  • Black: The primary background color found on their wings.
  • Blue: A bright iridescent blue can be seen surrounding the eyespots.
  • Yellow: Thin bands of yellow can be found bordering the blue areas.
  • Gray: Gray shades may be present in certain areas, adding more depth to their pattern.

In contrast to the White Peacock Butterfly, which is predominantly white with brown markings and orange margins, the Peacock Butterfly showcases an exciting blend of colors on their wings.

Here’s a comparison table showcasing the differences between Peacock Butterfly and White Peacock Butterfly:

Feature Peacock Butterfly White Peacock Butterfly
Primary Background Color Black White
Eyespots Present on both wings Absent
Iridescent Blue Present Absent
Yellow Bands Present Absent
Gray Shades Present Absent
Orange Margins Absent Present

Habitat and Range


The Peacock Butterfly is commonly found in various parts of Europe. Their range extends from the British Isles, across Western and Central Europe, and into parts of Scandinavia. They thrive in diverse habitats, such as:

  • Woods
  • Meadows
  • Woodland edges
  • Riverbanks
  • Ponds


In Asia, the Peacock Butterfly’s range spreads across to the eastern part of Russia. Some notable Asian habitats include fields, pastures, and parks.

Specific Natural Habitats

Peacock Butterflies are quite adaptable and occupy a wide range of habitats, but they often seek specific environments for breeding and feeding. Key habitats include:

  • Meadows: These open spaces are abundant in nectar-rich flowers that cater to the butterflies’ energy requirements.
  • Woodlands: Sheltered woodlands provide an ideal breeding ground, offering suitable larval host plants and safety from predators.
Habitat Common in Europe Common in Asia
Woods Yes Yes
Meadows Yes Yes
Woodland edges & Riverbanks Yes Yes
Ponds & Wetlands Yes Yes
Fields, pastures & Parks Less More

By understanding the habitat and range preferences of the Peacock Butterfly, conservation efforts can be tailored to protect these beautiful creatures in both Europe and Asia.

Life Cycle and Reproduction


The first stage of the life cycle of Peacock butterflies is the egg phase. Butterfly eggs are tiny and are typically laid by the adult females on host plants.

  • Usually take few days to hatch
  • Host plant provides nutrition for caterpillar

Caterpillar Stage

The caterpillar stage, also referred to as larval stage, is the second phase in the life cycle of Peacock butterflies. During this stage, the caterpillar eats and grows rapidly.

  • Average lifespan: around 2 inches and 10 days
  • Growth through shedding skin, or molting

Pupa Stage

The third phase is the pupa stage where the caterpillar transforms into an adult butterfly. It occurs within a protective shell known as a chrysalis.

  • Most species have a pupal stage of 2 weeks
  • The butterfly undergoes metamorphosis in this stage

Adult Butterfly

In the final stage as adults, Peacock butterflies emerge from the chrysalis. This stage is characterized by reproduction and hibernation.

  • Mating season: late spring / summer
  • Lifespan: some species can live up to 11 months
  • Hibernation: mainly during winter months

Comparison of Stages:

Stage Duration Characteristics
Eggs Few days Tiny, laid on host plants
Caterpillar Stage 10 days, 2 inches Rapid growth, molting
Pupa Stage About 2 weeks Transformation, chrysalis
Adult Butterfly Up to 11 months Reproduction, hibernation

Diet and Feeding Habits

Adult Butterfly Diet

The adult Peacock Butterfly has a diverse diet, which includes:

  • Nectar: Mainly from flowers like buddleia and dandelions
  • Fruit: Prefers rotten fruit, which provides essential nutrients
  • Sap: Tree sap provides additional nourishment

These butterflies are often found walking and foraging for food on buddleia, bidens, frogfruit, and water hyssop plants.

Caterpillar Diet

Peacock Butterfly caterpillars primarily feed on:

  • Stinging nettles
  • Small nettles
  • Common nettles

Occasionally, they also consume thistles and dandelions. Some examples of caterpillar foodplants include:

  • Urtica dioica (common nettle)
  • Urtica urens (small nettle)
  • Cirsium spp. (thistle)

Comparison between adult and caterpillar feeding habits:

Adult Butterfly Caterpillar
Main Diet Nectar, fruit, and sap Nettles, thistles, and dandelions
Foraging Walking on plants Consuming leaves of their foodplants

Pros and cons of Peacock Butterfly diet:


  • Adaptable to available food sources
  • Strong preference for nectar-rich flowers supports pollination


  • Relying on nettles as a primary food source for caterpillars may limit their habitat range

Predators and Defense Mechanisms

Common Predators

Peacock butterflies, like other butterflies, often face threats from predators such as:

  • Birds: Various bird species feed on butterflies.
  • Spiders: They catch butterflies in their webs.
  • Insects: Some insects, like the lacewing larvae, can predate on butterflies. The green lacewing larvae can eat between 100 and 150 aphids in their lifetime.

Defensive Strategies

Peacock butterflies have developed unique defensive strategies to protect themselves from predators:

  • Eyespots: These butterflies have large, scary-looking eyespots on their wings that resemble the eyes of a large animal. These eyespots can startle and deter predators.
    • Example: The eyespots help Peacock butterflies confuse and evade birds.
  • Hissing Sound: Peacock butterflies have the ability to produce a hissing sound as a deterrent.
  • Flight Pattern: A distinct and erratic flight pattern can confuse predators, making it harder for them to catch the butterfly.
  • Territorial Behaviour: Peacock butterflies can be territorial, protecting specific areas from other butterflies and potential predators.

Comparison Table:

Feature Peacock Butterfly Other Butterflies
Eyespots Large and vivid eyespots Less prominent
Hissing Sound Produces hissing sound Not common
Flight Pattern Erratic and confusing Varies
Territoriality Displays territoriality Varies

Overall, Peacock butterflies have evolved various defense mechanisms to protect themselves from predators, ensuring their survival and continued success in their natural habitats. While other butterflies also have defense strategies, the Peacock butterfly’s unique eyespots and territorial behavior set them apart, making them a fascinating subject for any butterfly enthusiast.

Conservation Status and Threats

The European Peacock (Inachis io), a member of the Nymphalidae family, is a colorful and widespread butterfly in the Lepidoptera order. The conservation status of this butterfly is not currently listed as threatened. However, due to habitat loss and other environmental pressures, there are concerns about their populations in some areas.

Key features:

  • Invertebrate
  • Colorful wing patterns

Characteristic threats:

  • Habitat loss
  • Environmental pressures

Comparing the European Peacock to other similar butterflies, it has a relatively stable population. However, continuous monitoring is essential to ensure the conservation of this captivating invertebrate.

Butterfly Species Conservation Status Threats
European Peacock Not threatened Habitat loss, environmental
Other Nymphalidae Varies Habitat loss, pollution

In conclusion, while the European Peacock’s conservation status may not be currently classified as threatened, it’s essential to promote habitat preservation and reduce environmental pressures to maintain the species’ stability within the Lepidoptera order. Remember, we all play a part in protecting our fascinating invertebrates!

Interesting Facts and Cultural Significance

Scientific Name and Classification

The Peacock Butterfly, scientifically known as Aglais io, belongs to the Aglais genus and the Nymphalidae family. It is found in various regions like Britain, Ireland, Scotland, Wales, and some parts of Southeast Europe. Here are some key characteristics:

  • Subspecies: There are no recognized subspecies for Aglais io.
  • Habitat: Woodlands, garden, pastures, and other open areas.
  • Distribution: From northern Turkey to Japan, and in certain regions of England and Wales.

Peacock Butterfly in Popular Culture

The Peacock Butterfly is linked to various cultural aspects. In Greek mythology, the name “Io” refers to a nymph who was turned into a cow. This connection can be seen in the butterfly’s eye-like patterns on its wings, which resemble the eyes of cattle.

In some regions, the Peacock Butterfly is considered a representative of good luck and is often the inspiration for various artwork and handicrafts. Below are some examples of the Peacock Butterfly’s presence in popular culture:

  • In Britain and Ireland, it is a symbol of hope and renewal.
  • In Japan, the butterfly is often used as a motif in traditional artwork.
  • In Turkey, the Peacock Butterfly’s colorful patterns are sometimes used in traditional rug designs.

The following table offers a quick comparison of cultural associations of the Peacock Butterfly in different regions:

Region Cultural Significance
Britain & Ireland Hope and renewal
Japan Traditional artwork
Turkey Rug designs

Reader Emails

Over the years, our website, has received hundreds of letters and some interesting images asking us about these insects. Scroll down to have a look at some of them.

Letter 1 – Banded Peacock from Costa Rica


CR butterfly
Location: Platanillo, Costa Rica
May 11, 2012 5:06 pm
Costa Rica calling again…could this be a Scarlet Peacock butterfly? I think I over-elevated the saturation in this shot. I noticed someone else on another website wondering what name we should call this little beauty.
Signature: Paula

Banded Peacock

Hi Paula,
We agree that this is a Peacock Butterfly, but we believe it is a different species, the Banded Peacock,
Anartia fatima, which we matched on the Butterflies of America website.

Wow…I am astonished at the many species! Thank you so much. I see zillions of gorgeous butterflies daily – but of course, the challenge is taking the shot as so many are on the move. I am heading down to Escaleras south of Dominical tomorrow, so guaranteed to find more stunning ones there…

Letter 2 – European Peacock found in Minnesota !!!!


Moth found at work
Hi there, this moth was found by a co-worker. It was found today, alive. I live in Minnesota and it is 0 degrees outside. I am wondering where it is usually found, and if it is possibly not native to north America. We have him in the container still, if you need a better picture of his body. It looks like a lot of the silkworm moths on your site, except for it’s antennae. Also when it’s wings are closed it is completely black from all sides. Me and a few others are very fascinated, and would like to know more about this moth.
Thanks, Dan from Twin Cities, Minnesota !!!!!

Hi Dan,
This is a butterfly, the European Peacock, Inachis io, and it is not native. According to the Butterflies of North America site, the European Peacock is a “Rare stray or transport to North America.” Adults do hibernate over the winter. More information can be found on the Wikipedia site.

Letter 3 – Green Banded Peacock from a Butterfly Pavilion


Location:  toledo,ohio
September 23, 2010 9:15 pm
dear bugman my boyfriend and i went to a butterfly house and i took this photo of a real bonita i was wondering if u can tell me its species thank you beverly green aka the bugwhisperer
Signature:  the bugwhisperer

Green Banded Peacock

Dear Beverly the bugwhisperer,
We did a web search of “green swallowtail butterfly pavilion” and we quickly identified your Green Peacock,
Papilio palinurus, on the Butterfly Pavilion website which has this short entry:    “Southeast Asia Camouflaged underneath, this butterfly displays bright green bands when it opens its wings.”  Wikipedia calls it the Emerald Swallowtail.

Green Banded Peacock

Letter 4 – Peacock


Subject: Irish Moth?
Location: Tralee, Ireland (Kerry)
July 29, 2017 7:08 am
Photographing the roses in Tralee today, we came upon this beautiful colored and quite docile moth. Wondering if someone might help ID it for us? Thanks for all you do!!
Signature: Cheers!


This is not a Moth.  This is a species of butterfly called a Peacock, Aglais io.  According to UK Butterflies:  “The Peacock is a familiar sight in gardens across the British Isles and is unmistakable, with quite spectacular eyes on the upperside of the hindwings that give this butterfly its name.”

Letter 5 – Peacock Butterfly from England


August 13, 2009
Hello, What’s That Bug!

PS. to atone for the dreadful quality of my specimen’s (Plume Moth)  image, I have also included two marvelous cropped images of a Peacock I took on a lovely day at a campsite, in a thistle hedge.
Sincerely, Sam, aged 13
Hadfield, Derbyshire, England

Peacock Butterfly
Peacock Butterfly

Hi Sam,
Though we are unable to identify which species of Plume Moth you sighted, we are thrilled to post your photo of a Peacock Butterfly, Inachis io, a species found throughout Europe and Asia.  The BBC Science and Nature website has a nice page on the Peacock Butterfly.

Letter 6 – Peacock Butterfly from Germany


Subject:  European peacock butterfly
Geographic location of the bug:  Regensburg Germany
Date: 10/11/2021
Time: 01:33 PM EDT
Your letter to the bugman:  Found in garden in Germany
How you want your letter signed:  Mark

European Peacock Butterfly

Dear Mark,
Thanks so much for submitting your lovely image of a European Peacock Butterfly.

Letter 7 – Peacock Butterfly on Match Safe and dead Western Poplar Sphinx


some images and questions
When I tried to send this through your site it continually rejected me….wrong password or something. Odd, since i had never registered. So I am trying to go around the system (if it is a system!) I have a moth and a spider. I also have two moths/butterflies in enamel on match safes (small antique boxes which were used in days past to hold and strike friction matches…I collect, photograph and write on this subject). I would be happy to get some info on these. Are they real species or fantasies i wonder. The real moth looks like some sort of sphinx based on what I have learned from your site. It has a very blunt head with a wingspread of about 4 inches. The antennae are turned down under. He was nearly dead when I found him (Albuquerque, NM) on my stoop. The pink secondary wings are unusual to me but perhaps not to you. The spider is under my eave and quite large and spins a beautiful web. I also have black widows in my grape vines where they seem to thrive and leave only the legs of their mates post- coitus I suspect. The only object to proper scale is the blue butterfly match safe If you do not answer directly, where would I find your response on the site?

Hi Karl,
The only way to submit content to our site at the moment is by email. We answer what we have time to answer. The image with the butterfly match safe and moth is an easy identification. The butterfly depicted on the safe is a Peacock Butterfly, Inachis io, a European species that has been introduced to the new world as well. It is a very accurate likeness. The moth is a Western Poplar Sphinx, Pachysphinx occidentalis. Your spider is an Orb Weaver and the blue butterfly on the other match safe is a moth, but we are unsure of the species.

Letter 8 – Peacock Pansy from India


beautiful small butterfly
December 14, 2009
I took this photo of a butterfly with my mobile camera after following it for quite some time. the time was around 4:30 pm on september 28 ,2009.I took this photo outside the hospital where I work ,which is about three miles from the coastline, close to Cochin,Kerala,South India. the small flower near the butterfly is Tridax procumbens,(Family Compositae) which is about the size of a fingernail.I just thought this butterfly was so cute and would love to see the picture in a book if you ever decide to use it
Cochin,Kerala,South India

Peacock Pansy
Peacock Pansy

Hi again Kiran,
Your butterfly so closely resembles the North American Buckeye Butterfly, that we did a web search for the genus and quickly identified the Peacock Pansy, Junonia almana, on a comprehensive websiteWikipedia also has some information.

Hi Daniel,
that’s really fast and indeed they are a very beautiful genus.I know very little about butterflies,but now my knowledge is increasing by the minute.I will surely keep an eye open for new ones,and definitely send you more pictures.thanks a lot.


  • Bugman

    Bugman aka Daniel Marlos has been identifying bugs since 1999. is his passion project and it has helped millions of readers identify the bug that has been bugging them for over two decades. You can reach out to him through our Contact Page.

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  • Piyushi Dhir

    Piyushi is a nature lover, blogger and traveler at heart. She lives in beautiful Canada with her family. Piyushi is an animal lover and loves to write about all creatures.

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Tags: Peacock Butterfly

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