Mosquitoes are fascinating insects with various adaptations that enable them to thrive in their environments. One of the most distinct features of these creatures is their ability to detect carbon dioxide and heat from mammals, which helps them locate their next blood meal with ease.
These insects have specialized mouthparts called proboscis, designed for piercing the skin of their hosts and feeding on their blood. Additionally, mosquitoes possess an anticoagulant in their saliva that prevents the blood from clotting while they feed. This adaptation allows them to consume their meal effectively without interruption.
Apart from their feeding methods, mosquitoes are skilled fliers, capable of maneuvering around obstacles and darting through the air just above the ground. Their wings, which beat at a high frequency, provide them with excellent agility in flight and is another reason they are such successful and resilient insects.
Mosquito Anatomy and Biology
Basic Body Structure
Mosquitoes are invertebrates belonging to the family Culicidae. They have a small body divided into three main parts: head, thorax, and abdomen.
- Head: Contains compound eyes, antennae, and mouthparts.
- Thorax: Supports wings and six legs.
- Abdomen: Contains the midgut and reproductive organs.
Feeding and Blood Meal Processing
Adult female mosquitoes need a blood meal to produce eggs. They have specialized mouthparts, called a proboscis, for feeding.
- Proboscis: Composed of six needle-like structures that pierce the skin and suck blood.
- Maxillae and mandibles: Cut through the skin.
- Two hypo-pharynges: Inject saliva containing anticoagulants.
- Labrum and labium: Form a central channel for blood flow.
Mosquitoes feed on various species, including humans, birds, and mammals. Blood meal processing occurs in the mosquito midgut, where nutrients are absorbed to support egg development.
|Mammals, including humans
In summary, mosquitoes have a complex anatomy supporting their biology and feeding habits. Their body structure enables them to fly and locate hosts, while specialized mouthparts facilitate blood-feeding for reproduction.
Breeding and Life Cycle
Egg Laying and Development
Female mosquitoes lay their eggs in or near standing water sources, such as puddles or other stagnant water. They can lay eggs individually or in groups called “rafts.” Some key aspects of mosquito egg laying are:
- They require water for egg development.
- Eggs can hatch into larvae within a few days.
Egg production and oviposition success depend on factors such as temperature, nutrition, and habitat. Here are some examples of mosquito egg laying behavior:
- Aedes aegypti: Lays eggs on the water surface.
- Culex species: Lays eggs in rafts, often in stagnant water.
Larval and Pupal Stages
Larvae, also known as “wigglers,” live in water and molt several times during their development. They usually surface to breathe air. After 8-10 days, larvae transform into pupae. Key features of larval and pupal stages include:
- Larvae and pupae live in water.
- Most species need to surface for air.
Pupae, or “tumblers,” don’t feed and are the last stage before emerging as adults. The entire life cycle from egg to adult takes about 8-10 days.
Comparison of Larval and Pupal Stages
|“Wigglers” live in water, molt, and surface for air.
|8-10 days in total
|“Tumblers” don’t feed, transform into adults.
In summary, mosquito breeding and life cycle involve egg laying in or near water, development of larvae and pupae, and emergence as adults. Key factors affecting egg production and development include temperature, nutrition, and habitat.
Feeding Behaviors and Adaptations
Differences Between Male and Female Mosquitoes
- Male mosquitoes primarily feed on plant juices, like nectar.
- Female mosquitoes require blood meals for egg development.
Male and female mosquitoes exhibit distinct differences in their feeding behaviors. Males predominantly feed on plant juices such as nectar, while females are hematophagous (blood-feeding) creatures out of necessity. Female mosquitoes typically require blood meals to aid in the development of their eggs.
Behavioral Adaptations in Blood Feeding
Female mosquitoes display various behavioral adaptations when it comes to blood feeding. For instance, they are generally attracted to mammals, birds, and sometimes larger animals like horses. Oddly enough, some mosquitoes exhibit a preference for humans over other animals.
Once a female mosquito bites its host, it injects saliva containing anticoagulant enzymes to prevent blood clotting. This results in an itchy reaction in the bitten area. Additionally, female mosquitoes possess specialized mouthparts that can pierce the skin efficiently, making it easier to obtain the much-needed blood meal.
Here are some behavioral adaptations in female mosquitoes for blood feeding:
- Blood-seeking behavior triggered by heat, chemical, and visual cues
- Ability to fly long distances searching for suitable hosts
- Injection of saliva containing anticoagulant enzymes during feeding
Comparison Table: Male vs Female Mosquito Feeding Behaviors
|Plant juices (e.g., nectar)
|Purpose of Feeding
|Energy for survival and reproduction
|Egg development and energy for survival
|Not adapted for blood feeding
|Adapted for piercing skin and blood feeding
In summary, while male mosquitoes rely on plant juices for their sustenance, it’s the female mosquitoes that engage in blood feeding to ensure the development of their eggs. This difference in feeding behavior helps mosquitoes maintain balance, although the females’ penchant for blood feeding makes them vectors for disease transmission.
Disease Transmission in Mosquitoes
Role of Mosquitoes in Disease Vectoring
Mosquitoes are known as vectors for various diseases. Some examples of mosquito-borne diseases include:
- Yellow fever
- West Nile virus
- Zika virus
These diseases impact a large number of people worldwide, making mosquitoes one of the most dangerous vectors in terms of public health.
Mechanisms of Pathogen Transmission
Mosquitoes transmit pathogens primarily through their salivary glands and gut microbiota. When mosquitoes feed on an infected animal, they acquire the pathogen. The pathogen reproduces within the mosquito’s body, and eventually makes its way to the mosquito’s salivary glands. The next time the mosquito bites a host, the pathogen is transmitted through its saliva.
Here is a comparison table of some common mosquito-borne diseases:
|Main Mosquito Vector
|Fever, chills, headache, fatigue
|High fever, rash, joint pain
|Aedes, Haemagogus spp.
|High fever, jaundice, vomiting
|Fever, headache, disorientation
|Fever, body aches, joint pain
|Fever, rash, joint pain
In conclusion, mosquitoes play a significant role in the transmission of various diseases. Understanding the mechanisms behind pathogen transmission can aid in developing methods to control and prevent the spread of these diseases.
Types and Distribution of Mosquito Species
Anopheles mosquitoes are part of the Culicidae family in the Diptera order. These mosquitoes are particularly significant because they are vectors of malaria. Anopheles species found in the United States include Anopheles freeborni and Anopheles quadrimaculatus1.
Anopheles mosquitoes have unique characteristics:
- Long palps
- Eggs are laid singly on water surfaces with floats on each side
- Larvae lie parallel to the water’s surface
Aedes mosquitoes also belong to the Culicidae family. Aedes aegypti, a prominent Aedes species, is responsible for spreading several diseases, including dengue, Zika, and yellow fever2.
Key features of Aedes mosquitoes include:
- Black and white patterned body
- Eggs are laid on damp soil or moist surfaces
- Larvae have a siphon at the tail-end for breathing air
- Prefer to bite humans2
Culex mosquitoes are another group of Culicidae mosquitoes. Culex species in the United States are Culex tarsalis and Culex quinquefasciatus1. These mosquitoes can transmit diseases like West Nile virus and Japanese encephalitis.
Characteristics of Culex mosquitoes:
- Stout body with a blunt-ended abdomen
- Eggs are laid in rafts on standing water surfaces
- Larvae have a siphon at the tail-end for breathing air
|Known Species in the US
|Lays Eggs on…
|A. freeborni, A. quadrimaculatus
|Dengue, Zika, Yellow fever
|Damp soil or moist surfaces
|West Nile virus, Japanese encephalitis
|Culex tarsalis, Culex quinquefasciatus
|Standing water surfaces
Climate change can influence the distribution of mosquito vectors. Warmer temperatures can expand mosquitoes’ habitat range and alter their biting behavior3.
Prevention and Control Strategies
Insect repellents can help protect against mosquito bites. Commonly used active ingredients include:
- DEET: A popular and effective chemical repellent, can cause skin irritation in some people
- Picaridin: A synthetic compound less likely to cause skin irritation, effective against mosquitoes
- IR3535: A biopesticide derived from natural materials, less likely to cause skin reactions, good for sensitive skin
|Slightly less protection
|Low irritation, eco-friendly
Environmental and Community Approaches
To further prevent mosquito-borne diseases, environmental and community approaches are essential. Some strategies include:
- Mosquito Control: Integrated Mosquito Management (IMM) combines various methods to reduce mosquito populations in communities
- Source Reduction: Eliminating mosquito breeding grounds, such as standing water, can help control population growth
- Insecticides: Applying insecticides can effectively manage and kill adult mosquito populations
- Vector Control: Controlling mosquitoes and their habitat to reduce the spread of diseases
- Screens: Installing screens on windows and doors prevents mosquitoes from entering indoor spaces
- Outdoors: Reducing water accumulation in yards and gardens eliminates potential breeding grounds
- Urbanization: Expanding urban development can disrupt mosquito habitats
- Mosquito Evolution: Mosquitoes are adaptable and may develop resistance to certain control methods
Implementing a combination of these strategies and products can help protect individuals and communities from harmful mosquito populations.
Global Impact of Mosquito-borne Diseases
Disease Statistics and Geographical Spread
Mosquito-borne diseases, such as malaria, dengue fever, chikungunya, and the West Nile virus, affect a large portion of the world’s population. More than 80% of the global population is at risk1, with millions of deaths occurring annually1. The elderly are particularly susceptible to these diseases1.
- Malaria: Primarily found in tropical and subtropical regions1.
- Dengue Fever: Affects 40% of the world’s population2.
- Chikungunya: Rapidly spreading globally2.
- West Nile virus: Endemic in many regions worldwide1.
Factors Influencing Disease Emergence and Spread
Various factors contribute to the emergence and spread of mosquito-borne diseases. Two significant influences are temperature and genomics.
- Temperature: A critical factor in mosquito and parasite biology4. Climate change may expose half of the world’s population to disease-spreading mosquitoes by 20503.
- Genomics: Genetic adaptations in both mosquitoes and viruses enable these diseases to thrive and spread1.
In the future, urbanization and climate change could create new mosquito habitats, exposing billions of people to increased disease risk4. Prevention and control strategies are essential in mitigating this growing threat2.
Over the years, our website, whatsthatbug.com has received hundreds of letters and some interesting images asking us about these insects. Scroll down to have a look at some of them.
Letter 1 – Advice on Repelling Mosquitoes needed
Cambodian missionaries being eaten by mosquitoes
January 31, 2012 11:23 pm
Hi! My best friend and her family recently moved to Cambodia to minister and care for the street kids there (specifically children being held as sexual slaves)…apparently, word is out in the mosquito community that tasty Americans have moved in, because they (especially her children) are being eaten alive. She said there were around 20 of them under her two year old’s mosquito net tonight. They are, of course, using repellent, but it doesn’t seem to be helping very much. There are holes in their house so there are LOTS of bugs everywhere. Any ideas on a natural way to make their home comfortable?
Signature: Heather Wilson
Since you did not provide us with a photo to illustrate your question, we have found a photo of a male Asian Tiger Mosquito from our archives. It should be noted that male Mosquitoes, which can be distinguished by their bushy antennae, do not bite. The females of the species are the blood suckers. We do not have any advice regarding repelling Mosquitoes, though there are many commercial products available. Perhaps one of our readers will be able to provide some comments to this posting and you may be able to relay that information to the Cambodian missionaries.
Letter 2 – Bug of the Month May 2010: Mosquito Larvae
May 1, 2010
With spring upon us, it might be a good time to take precautions against the unwanted cultivation of Mosquito Larvae. Mosquitoes will proliferate in any body of standing water, including the bird bath, rain barrel, empty tin can, vernal pool, abandoned swimming pool or watering can. At our own Los Angeles offices, we have two bird baths and a few large containers of water we use to water our plants, and they inevitably become the breeding ground for Mosquitoes. Luckily our Angelfish love Mosquito Larvae, so we catch them on a daily basis and feed them to our pets.
The Mosquito Larvae are called Wrigglers because of the way they propel themselves through the water, and the Mosquito Pupae (none visible in these images) are called Tumblers because of their head over breathing tube manner of tumbling through the water. Mosquito Larvae and Pupae gather at the surface of the water with their breathing tubes taking oxygen from the air. As soon as they sense a change in light or movement overhead, they quickly wriggle and tumble to to bottom of the basin where they wait for up to several minutes before returning to the surface. We quickly net them at the surface and then wait for their return before attempting to capture more.
Letter 3 – Gallinipper Mosquito
Location: Kendall County, Illinois
August 16, 2010 12:37 pm
I believe that this is the Psorophora ciliata, or Gallinipper Mosquito. It seems to be an aggressive day biter. I thought you might like the photo. We live in Northern Illinois and this is the first year I have noticed these. We have had a ridiculous amount of rain this year though.
As we just noted in the immediately preceeding posting, we love getting preidentified insects that would be time consuming for us to research. We are linking to the BugGuide page on the Gallinipper which indicates this “large mosquito” has a diet that includes “Males and females feed on nectar, females said to seek bloodmeals from large mammals. Females bloodfeed day and night and are able to bite through heavy clothing.” The Galveston Mosquito Control website indicates: “It is the largest blood sucking mosquito in the U.S. Commonly referred to as the ‘Shaggy-legged’ Gallinipper. It is easy to identify by its large size and it inflicts a painful bite. Rarely found in large numbers. The larvae are large and are predacious upon other larvae. ” It is also indicated that adults can fly from one to two miles.
Letter 4 – Mosquito Larva from Bangladesh
February 13, 2017 12:46 pm
This thing i found in my washroom,its a nano thing,but looks like i have never seen it before in my whole life.I need to know what is this thing.Its look like horrible.
Signature: Texting me.
This is some type of larva, and it does remind us of a Beetle larva in the order Coleoptera.
Correction: Thanks to a comment from Angel Robinson, we reverted to our original first impression that this is a Mosquito larva. As sometimes happens when we are rushed, we post without any research. We found a posting on Plankton and Macroinvertegrates of Woodland Vernal Pools that confirms the pictured larva is a Mosquito larva.
Letter 5 – Male Mosquito
Subject: ID of insect please
Geographic location of the bug: Kansas City MO USA
Time: 08:38 AM EDT
I have never seen this bug before. Looks like its wearing a combination feather duster/ trident on its head and I just can’t even.
How you want your letter signed: Kathleen M Henn
These images are positively puzzling. This is a member of the order Diptera, and the feathery antennae indicates it is a male, but the “trident” head anatomy is quite the mystery for us. It is a member of a group BugGuide identifies as “‘Nematocera’ (Non-Brachycera)” that can be identified by “The most distinctive identification feature is the antennae which have 6 or more segments. Most have long and slender antennae, which in some families can be highly plumose. Other families have short, thick antennae (eg. the march flies – Bibionidae). Most of the flies in this group have slender bodies and long, narrow wings.” This group includes Crane Flies and Mosquitoes. We have not had any luck with our initial attempt at a species identification, and we are running out of time this morning, so we are posting it as unidentified and we will contact Eric Eaton for his input. Meanwhile, perhaps one of our readers will be able to research this while we are out gainfully employed and working a 13 hour Thursday. How big was it?
Update: Eric Eaton responded to us pretty quickly “Male mosquito. Pretty standard anatomy for them, actually.” and we found similar anatomy in this BugGuide image.
Letter 6 – Mosquite Larvae
Backyard water larvae
Location: Highland Park, Los Angeles, CA
November 9, 2012
I found these larvae in a kitty litter pan that had been left out in the rain a couple times. Any guesses?
(your neighbor in Highland Park)
You have Mosquito Larvae. You should not keep standing water in your yard as Mosquitoes can multiply with amazing speed if conditions are right. Cooler weather results in a slower maturity rate.
Letter 7 – Mosquito
I was wondering if you can tell me what purpose that mosquitos serve. We all know that bees are for pollination and that ladybugs eat aphids but what purpose does the mosquito serve in the insect world. This is something I have tried researching all to no avail.
You are forcing me to get philosophical. Charles Darwin, though he is primarily known for his theory of evolutionism, also was intrigued by the complex interactions of organisms within the universe. Eliminate one species from the equation and the delicate balance could be forever overturned, setting into play the destruction of life as we know it. Now I’m not saying that if mosquitos were obliterated, everything would die, but they do serve as an important link in the food chain. Dragonflies, swallows and many fish are dependant upon the lowly pestilence known as the mosquito for their existance. Eliminate the mosquito and the swallows might no longer return to Capistrano or any other place for that matter. They serve a purpose, and just because we don’t know exactly what it is, does not lessen that purpose.
Letter 8 – Mosquito
Geographic location of the bug: It was in my couch
Time: 09:47 PM EDT
Your letter to the bugman: Please help me bc the bugs bite and and itch’s
How you want your letter signed: Lisa
This is a Mosquito and your couch is not a Geographic Location. According to Sciencing: “Geographic location refers to a position on the Earth.” Your couch might be in Alabama or it might be in Zanzibar.
Facebook Posting from Paula Di: I’ve never seen a mosquito that looks like this! What part of the world is this from? Thank you
It’s on a couch. More than that is pure speculation. Ed. Note: That is no dig to Paula Di, but rather support of the need for actual geographic locations to assist in our identification process.
Letter 9 – Mosquito in UK
Subject: what is this insect
Location: Manchester/ UNITED KINGDOM
April 6, 2017 11:30 am
Black flying mosquito looking insect landed on my hand while i was sat in my garden. I live in salford/manchester in england. i didnt think mosquitos could survive over here
Signature: suprise me
This sure looks like a Mosquito to us. Did it bite? The Mosquito is number four on the NHS site 12 UK Insects and Bugs that Bit or Sting. Additionally, BBC News has a posting entitled Is the Mosquito Menace Growing in the UK?
Yes it bit me as i took a picture of it. I had a small red lump for around 2 weeks
That sounds like exactly the reaction we would expect from a Mosquito bite. You failed to mention if it itched.
Letter 10 – Mosquito Larva
Subject: Water insect
Location: Salisbury, North Carolina
September 8, 2016 6:22 am
I found this little guy in water on my deck. It’s about 9/16 inches long and wiggles like a mosquito larvae. Any information on this would be very much appreciated.
This is a Mosquito Larva, commonly called a Wriggler. It will soon pupate into a Tumbler, a very active aquatic pupa. With the Zika scare, Southerners are being cautioned about standing water, which is a breeding ground for Mosquitoes. Mosquito larvae and pupae both need air to survive, and they generally congregate at the surface of the water where they can breed, but any disturbance sends them wriggling and tumbling beneath the surface for several minutes.
Thanks for getting back to me so quickly. I had no idea mosquito larva got this large.
Although I feel a little like I wasted your time, I appreciate it, just the same.
Letter 11 – Mosquito Larva
Subject: Identify this organism please
Location: California USA
August 7, 2017 4:13 pm
Saw a lot of these on a house pond with fish. Are they safe?
Signature: Water bug?
I found out its a mosquito larvae
You are correct that this is a Mosquito larva. They are commonly called Wrigglers because of the way they move through the water. Home gardeners in California, where most gardens get frequent watering, are warned that even the smallest container of water can become a breeding ground for Mosquitoes. It is quite interesting that the fish in the pond are not eating the Mosquito larvae. If the fish are Koi, they might be too large to be interested in such a small creature, but introducing mosquito fish might help control the situation.
Letter 12 – Mosquito Larva from Australia
Subject: Larva of some sort??
Geographic location of the bug: Perth, Western Australia
Time: 09:56 PM EDT
Hi! The weirdness of this situation compelled me to look online for information. This tiny little creature was found in the cistern water of a toilet that had been unflushed for a while. I apologise profusely for the blurry nature of the photos but as you can see from the mm markers it is a tiny little thing, and I took its photo through a magnifying glass with my phone. Thank you 🙂
How you want your letter signed: Curiously Confused
Dear Curiously Confused,
This looks like an aquatic Mosquito larva or pupa, or some other immature stage of a Fly to us, so finding it in an unused toilet makes sense, but it is puzzling there was only one. The Department of Medical Entomology site has some images.
Letter 13 – Mosquito Larva or Wriggler from Australia
Subject: Multiple tiny bugs wriggling like crazy in pool
Geographic location of the bug: Victoria, Australia
Time: 01:21 AM EDT
Your letter to the bugman: Hello Bugman! As it’s summer we set up a blow up pool in our back yard and today as I was having a dip I saw multiple tiny little wormy bugs aggressively writhing around in the water. I started feeling slightly itchy on my back so freaked out and jumped out, but I managed to grab one of the little guys and take a photo (sorry about the quality my iPhone struggled to get a clear photo). I also have redness around where I’m itchy but I could just be paranoid and it have been a mosquito. If you could let me know what bug this is I would very much appreciate it 🙂
How you want your letter signed: Jess
This is a Mosquito Larva, commonly called a Wriggler. The female Mosquito lays her eggs in a floating raft, and the young quickly hatch and develop, molting and growing, and the exact time depends on the temperature. Controlling aquatic Mosquito Larvae is the best way to reduce the numbers of flying, and biting, Mosquitoes.
Letter 14 – Alaskan Mosquito
Browsing your site, I see no picture of a mosquito. This one my son, Andrew, shot in Alaska in June, just south of Denali. This Alaska State Bird specimen was on the screen of our screen house, and had just munched on our Golden Retriever. We used a Linolool mosquito inhibitor to kep our sanity during this trip- they confuse the critters, and they fly around like they’re drunk, and don’t tend to land on you.
Ruth in New Mexico
We were a little late in posting your fabulous photo, but we now have an illustration on our Mosquito page.