Carpenter bees can be a nuisance to homeowners, causing damage to wood structures on your property.
These large bees, which can grow up to an inch long, bore holes into the wood to lay their eggs, leading to unsightly damage and potential structural issues.
Knowing how to get rid of carpenter bees can help you maintain your home’s appearance and structural integrity.
There are several methods to tackle a carpenter bee infestation. One non-toxic approach is spraying the affected areas with soapy water to eliminate the bees.
Additionally, sealing holes in wood surfaces with plugs, putty, or caulk, can prevent future infestations. Staining or painting outdoor wooden surfaces can also deter carpenter bees from targeting your home.
Besides causing damage to your property, carpenter bees also play a crucial role as pollinators. They’re particularly good at pollinating vegetables and flowers through buzz pollination.
When attempting to control a carpenter bee infestation, balance the need to protect your property with the importance of maintaining healthy pollinator populations.
Understanding Carpenter Bees
Appearance and Characteristics
Carpenter bees are large insects with a black abdomen and yellow hairs on their thorax.
They are known for creating their nests in wood and can be identified by the sawdust piles beneath their perfectly circular holes. Some key features include:
- Large size, around an inch long
- Black, shiny abdomen
- Yellow hairs on thorax
- Fan-shaped, yellow or moldy stains on structures
Male and Female Bees
There are some differences between male and female carpenter bees:
- Males: White spot on face and cannot sting
- Females: Capable of stinging but rarely do
While males are more aggressive in their behavior, they do not have the ability to sting.
Females, on the other hand, are equipped to sting but are less likely to do so unless provoked.
Carpenter Bees vs Bumblebees and Honeybees
|Smaller than carpenter bees
|Smaller than carpenter bees
|Black abdomen, yellow hairs on thorax
|Black and yellow stripes
|Yellow and black stripes
|Flower nectar and pollen
|Nectar and pollen
|Nectar and pollen
|Males aggressive but harmless, females sting but rarely
|Gentle, stings when provoked
|Gentle, stings when provoked
Overall, carpenter bees are larger and build their nests in wood, while bumblebees and honeybees tend to be smaller and have distinct nesting habits.
Though carpenter bees share some similar traits with bumblebees and honeybees, it is their nesting habits and appearance that set them apart.
Signs of Carpenter Bee Infestations
Observing Holes and Tunnels
Carpenter bees create holes and tunnels in wooden structures as they build their nests.
They prefer dead, un-decayed wood such as pine, cedar, or cypress. You may notice:
- Perfectly circular holes about 1/2 inch in diameter
- Tunnels several inches long, often hidden from view
For example, you might find holes in wooden eaves, posts, or sheds.
Sawdust and Poop Stains
As carpenter bees bore into wood, they leave behind:
- Sawdust piles below their entrance holes
- Fan-shaped, yellow, or moldy stains on structures from their poop
These signs can often be found on wooden siding or decks.
Noise and Buzzing
Carpenter bees produce a distinctive:
- Boring sound as they chew through wood
- Buzzing noise when they’re flying around
You may hear these sounds near wooden structures where they’re active.
Damage to Wooden Structures
Over time, carpenter bee infestations can lead to:
- Decay and rot in wooden structures
- Structural damage from woodpeckers, attracted by the bees’ larvae
Damage is more likely in structures made from pine, cedar, or fir, as their wood grain is easier for bees to bore into.
Comparison of Carpenter Bee Infestation Signs
|Holes & Tunnels
|Circular holes & tunnels in wood
|Eaves, posts, sheds
|Sawdust & Stains
|Sawdust below holes, yellow or moldy poop stains
|Noise & Buzzing
|Boring sound as bees chew wood, buzzing as they fly around
|Near infested wooden structures
|Wood decay, rot, damage from woodpeckers
|Pine, cedar, fir wooden structures
Dangers and Benefits of Carpenter Bees
Potential Structural Damage
Carpenter bees are known for drilling perfectly circular holes into wooden surfaces, which may lead to structural damage in homes and other wooden structures.
Some signs of their presence include:
- Sawdust piles below the holes
- Fan-shaped, yellow, or moldy stains on structures
Carpenter bees don’t eat wood, but their excavating habits can weaken structures over time.
Pollinators in the Garden
Carpenter bees play a significant role as pollinators in the garden. They feed on flower nectar and pollen, helping plants reproduce and maintain a healthy ecosystem.
By attracting these bees to your garden, you benefit from increased flowering and fruit production.
Impact on Pets and Humans
Pets: Bird species such as woodpeckers may be attracted to areas with carpenter bees, as they eat the larvae found in their nests. This presence of woodpeckers could increase the distraction to your pets.
Humans: Though female carpenter bees are capable of stinging, they rarely do so. Males, on the other hand, cannot sting but may hover aggressively to frighten potential adversaries.
In general, carpenter bees are considered:
- Harmful due to: Potential structural damage
- Beneficial for: Pollinating gardens
How to Get Rid of Carpenter Bees? Carpenter Bee Control Methods
Insecticides and Pesticides
One way to control carpenter bees is by using insecticides and pesticides. Some effective options include:
- Dust insecticides: Apply in bee tunnels to kill adults and larvae. Example: Delta Dust.
- Liquid insecticides: Spray on affected wood surfaces. Example: Cypermethrin.
|May require reapplication
|Easy to apply
Organic Alternatives: Citrus Spray and Almond Oil
Carpenter bees can also be repelled using organic alternatives, such as:
- Citrus spray: Boil citrus fruit peels in water, then strain and spray on affected areas.
- Almond oil: Mix with water and spray on affected wood surfaces.
These methods are non-toxic and chemical-free.
Preventing Infestation through Structural Changes
Make structural changes to avoid carpenter bee infestations:
- Paint or stain wood: Painted or stained wood is less attractive to carpenter bees.
- Varnish: Apply varnish to wood surfaces for added protection.
- Caulk or wood putty: Seal cracks and crevices in wood structures.
By implementing these carpenter bee control methods, you can effectively manage and prevent infestations while maintaining a friendly and safe environment.
Trapping and Removal Strategies
Carpenter Bee Traps
Carpenter bee traps are a popular and chemical-free method to get rid of carpenter bees.
They typically use a combination of wood, bee-sized holes, and a jar or container to trap the bees trying to attack your property. Some key features include:
- Designed to attract bees to the trap
- Non-toxic and eco-friendly
- Reusable and easy to maintain
Here’s a comparison of two popular carpenter bee traps:
|Easy to install, durable materials
|Slightly expensive, larger in size
|Affordable, compact size
|Less effective, may require frequent maintenance
Manual Removal of Nests and Eggs
Another way to remove carpenter bees is by manually eliminating their nests and eggs. This can be done by following these steps:
- Locate the nesting site: Carpenter bees prefer large, bare, and unpainted wood surfaces.
- Apply insecticidal dust: Apply it inside the nest entrance to kill larvae and eggs. Always wear protective gear and follow the manufacturer’s guidelines.
- Seal the nest: After a few days, plug the entrance using wood filler or other suitable materials to prevent future bees from nesting.
Remember, carpenter bees overwinter, which means they could return to the same nesting site if not properly managed.
Manual removal can be time-consuming and requires caution, but it effectively addresses the issue from its source.
Prevention Techniques and Tips
Sealing Holes and Cracks
One effective way to prevent carpenter bees is by sealing all holes and cracks found in wooden surfaces.
Use putty, caulk, or wood glue to seal these areas before carpenter bees can create galleries for their nests.
Examples of areas to cover:
- Fascia boards
- Outdoor furniture
Using Hardy Wood Species
Carpenter bees prefer to bore into softwoods like pine. By using hardy wood species such as cedar, cypress, redwood, and oak, you create less inviting environments for the insects.
|Attractiveness to Carpenter Bees
Consider using non-wood alternatives for your outdoor structures to discourage carpenter bees from nesting.
- Vinyl siding
- Composite decking
- Metal railings
- Low maintenance
- Unattractive to carpenter bees
- More expensive
- Less natural appearance
Creating Unfavorable Conditions
Make your space less appealing to carpenter bees by creating unfavorable conditions.
Steps to take:
- Store firewood away from structures
- Clean stains resulting from their activity (e.g., poop or mandible marks)
- Play loud music or use wind chimes to discourage nesting
- Apply insecticides where necessary (follow product guidelines)
Understanding the Lifecycle of Carpenter Bees
Excavating Tunnels and Nests
Carpenter bees are known to bore into wood to create nests. They usually target dead or un-decayed coniferous woods like pine, cedar, or cypress.
A female carpenter bee chews round holes up to 1/2 inch in diameter and several inches in length.
Reproduction and Colonies
Carpenter bees are solitary, unlike bumblebees that form colonies with queens and workers.
The carpenter bee lifecycle is focused on reproduction.
They collect pollen to feed their offspring and guard their nests. Here is a comparison table of carpenter bees and bumblebees:
|Shiny black abdomen, yellow hairs on thorax
|Fluffy, with black and yellow stripes
|In tunnels within wood
|Underground or in cavities
Overwintering and Lifecycle Stages
The carpenter bee lifecycle has four main stages:
- Eggs: The female lays eggs inside the tunnels.
- Larvae: The hatched larvae feed on the stored pollen.
- Pupae: They develop into pupae, from which adult bees emerge.
- Adults: Mature bees overwinter in their nests, and in spring, they emerge to mate and start the cycle again.
Natural Ways to Get Rid of Carpenter Bees
- Paint or varnish wood surfaces to deter excavation
- Seal cracks and holes in wood structures
- Use essential oil deterrents like citrus, eucalyptus, or tea tree oil
- Install fine mesh screening over eaves and vents
Remember, carpenter bee nests can cause damage to wooden structures, but their presence is also a crucial part of the ecosystem.
Consider using natural methods to manage and deter them whenever possible.
In conclusion, managing carpenter bees is a delicate balance between preserving structural integrity and respecting ecological roles.
These bees, distinguishable by their black abdomen and yellow thorax hairs, are vital pollinators but can cause structural damage.
Various control methods, from insecticides to natural deterrents and structural modifications, offer effective solutions.
Recognizing infestation signs and understanding their lifecycle aids in timely intervention. Ultimately, adopting a harmonious approach safeguards both our homes and the invaluable pollination services these insects provide.
Over the years, our website, whatsthatbug.com has received hundreds of letters and some interesting images asking us about carpenter bees.
Scroll down to have a look at some of them.
Letter 1 – Carpenter Bee
Need help identifying beetle species
I was looking at your beetle database trying to identify this one. At first I thought it’s part of Dynastes tityus female, then I notice that the back is totally different. It’s a big one though. I would say at least 2”.
Amrul Isham Ismail
Hi Amrul Isham Ismail,
You don’t have a beetle at all, but what appears to be a Carpenter Bee. We really like your action photos.
Letter 2 – Carpenter Bee
Subject: Black Bumblebee?
Location: Peoria AZ
March 3, 2016 6:23 pm
This guy has been hanging around our house for several days. He has no friends and just seems interested in our house. He is not aggressive and has quite a loud buzz!
Signature: Susan Miller
This is a solitary Carpenter Bee, and it is a female. Female Carpenter Bees live a relatively long time because it is labor intense for them to excavate and provision a nest.
Thank you Daniel for your prompt reply. Should we be concerned that she may try to be nesting in our home?
According to Charles Hogue in Insects of the Los Angeles Basin: “Carpenter bees are so named because they bore into wood, forming tunnel-like nests for the rearing of the young.
Many kinds of wood are used: although fence posts, building timbers, and telephone poles often are attacked, the effects are seldom damaging.”
Letter 3 – Bug of the Month: May 2007 – Valley Carpenter Bees. From the Archives: a pair of Carpenter Bees from Texas
I bet you guys have fun on your sight. I thought you might like the attached photo of a male and female carpenter bee from El Paso, TX. The differing colors are great. I believe them to be a Xylocopa species.
According to John L. Neff of the Central Texas Melittological Institute in Austin, it is either X. varipuncta (your Valley Carpenter Bee) or more likely, X. mexicanorum, given distribution records. The picture was taken on Feb 19, 2005, which is a bit early for them to be out and about (they usually show up, based on my recollection, about April and May).
They were rather lethargic for quite some time despite that it was not cold (upper 70s that day). The tree is a “Mexican Elder”, my wife tells me a Sambucus mexicana, though she is not sure. The site is: El Paso, El Paso County, Texas, 2 miles n. of downtown.
Thank you so much for sending in the gorgeous photo.
Ed. Note: When this image arrived last spring, we fell in love with it. We are always cheered by the presence of these large lumbering black female Valley Carpenter Bees in our garden each spring. They frequent the sweet peas and the honeysuckle. The female bees remain in the garden most of the summer.
One year a bee nested in our carob tree and another year we found a nest in a sumac. The female bee labors many hours creating a tunnel. she fills the end of the tunnel with pollen and nectar and lays an egg, sealing the chamber with wood pulp.
She will create about five or six chambers, each housing a single egg, within the tunnel. The adults emerge in about 45 days. Adult female bees will overwinter and create a new nest in the spring.
The golden male bees are very short lived and have a very different, more nervous flight pattern. We are eagerly awaiting the appearance of the first male bees in our garden this spring. Male bees are attracted to our lantana and digitalis.