How Do Carpenter Bees Drill Holes? Unveiling Nature’s Crafty Crib-Makers

Carpenter bees are fascinating creatures known for their ability to drill holes in wood.

These large bees, measuring about 0.75-1 inch long, can be identified by their black, shiny abdomen and yellow fuzz on the thorax.

Surprisingly, despite their reputation, carpenter bees do not eat wood.

How Do Carpenter Bees Drill Holes

They create nests for their young by boring holes into wooden structures while consuming flower nectar and pollen for sustenance.

As homeowners and wood enthusiasts may know, carpenter bees can cause damage to houses and wooden furniture.

Despite these negative effects, it is important to recognize the vital role they play in pollination.

In the following article, we will delve into the fascinating methods carpenter bees employ to drill holes in wood and their impact on our ecosystems.

Understanding Carpenter Bees

Appearance and Characteristics

Carpenter bees are large, robust insects about 0.75-1 inch long.

They have a shiny black abdomen and bright yellow, orange, or white hairs on the thorax.

Carpenter bees are often mistaken for bumblebees due to their size and coloration.

Male and Female Bees

Male and female carpenter bees can be distinguished easily. Males have a yellow face, while females have a black face.

Females have a dense brush of black hairs on their hind legs. Although females are capable of inflicting a painful sting, they rarely do so.

Males, on the other hand, cannot sting but hover around to frighten potential adversaries.

Female Valley Carpenter Bee

Summary of differences between male and female carpenter bees:

  • Face color: Yellow (male), black (female)
  • Hind leg hairs: Dense and black (female)
  • Ability to sting: No (male), yes (female)

Nesting and Lifecycle

Carpenter bees drill holes using their strong mandibles into wooden structures like eaves, decks, porches, or fences.

They create tunnels to lay their eggs, and the larvae develop inside these tunnels. Adult bees feed on nectar, while larvae feed on a combination of nectar and pollen.

Carpenter bee lifecycle stages:

  1. Egg
  2. Larva
  3. Adult bee

Pollinators and Ecosystem Role

Carpenter bees play a vital role in garden ecosystems as pollinators, helping plants reproduce by transferring pollen.

Although they cause structural damage from their drilling activities, they are generally less aggressive in stinging humans than honeybees or bumblebees because they are solitary insects.

How Do Carpenter Bees Drill Holes?

How They Drill Holes

Carpenter bees drill holes into wood using their powerful mandibles. They create perfectly round holes about the diameter of a finger.

These holes are entry points to tunnels where they lay eggs and create cells for their larvae.

Types of Wood They Target

Carpenter bees target a variety of wood types, including:

  • Cedar
  • Redwood
  • Cyprus
  • Untreated wood
  • Painted wood

They are more likely to target softer woods and are also known to infest decks and outdoor furniture.

Signs of Infestation

A carpenter bee infestation can be identified by the following signs:

  • Perfectly circular holes in wood surfaces
  • Sawdust piles below the holes
  • Large, black, and yellow bees buzzing around your head
  • Yellow or moldy stains on the sides of wooden structures

Structural Damage and Repairs

Carpenter bees can cause significant damage to wooden structures by drilling multiple tunnels.

They may excavate tunnels for quite some time and reuse the same spots, compromising the structural integrity of your timber.

To repair damage, homeowners should:

  • Inspect the area for damage and decay
  • Fill the holes with wood filler or replace damaged wood pieces
  • Paint or treat the wood to prevent further infestations
  • Perform regular maintenance on wooden structures, e.g., decks and eaves
Type of Wood Pros Cons
Hardwoods Less likely to be infested May still be targeted occasionally
Untreated Easier for carpenter bees to infest More prone to rot and decay
Painted Offers some protection Can still be infested

Keep in mind it’s important to act early in order to minimize the damage caused by carpenter bees in your wooden structures.

Preventing and Managing Carpenter Bees

Natural Deterrents and Carpentry Tips

Carpenter bees can cause damage to wooden structures by drilling holes to create nests. Here are some natural deterrents and carpentry tips to help protect your wood:

  • Paint or varnish: Applying a coat of paint or varnish on wood surfaces makes them less attractive to carpenter bees.
  • Siding: Consider using siding materials such as vinyl, aluminum, or fiber cement, which are less prone to bee damage.
  • Caulk: Filling gaps, cracks, and small holes in wood with caulk can discourage bees from nesting.
  • Wood putty: Cover any existing carpenter bee holes with wood putty to prevent reinfestation.
  • Garden: Plant natural bee repellents like marigolds and citronella in your garden.

Carpenter Bee Traps

Carpenter bee traps can help capture and reduce the number of bees around your wooden structures. Here are some features of carpenter bee traps:

  • Hang the trap near the infested area to target territorial bees.
  • The contents of a carpenter bee trap usually include a wooden box or plastic bottle with small entrance holes.
  • The trapped bees are unable to escape and eventually die inside.
  • Pros: Non-toxic, eco-friendly option for managing these pests.
  • Cons: May not eliminate the entire bee population.

Chemical Solutions and Pest Control

In severe cases, you may need to use insecticides or seek professional pest control services. Here’s what to know:

  • Insecticides: Apply insecticides such as pyrethroids to the entrance of bee holes during night-time when they’re less active.
  • Prevention: Regular checks of wooden structures and timely application of insecticides can prevent carpenter bee infestations.
  • Pest control: If you’re uncomfortable using chemicals or unable to manage the infestation yourself, consider hiring a pest control professional.

Remember that carpenter bees play a vital role in buzz pollination and are important for pollinating various plants and vegetables.

Preventing and managing carpenter bees should focus on protecting your property while also being mindful of their ecological importance.


In conclusion, carpenter bees, characterized by their shiny black abdomen and yellow thorax fuzz, play a pivotal role in ecosystems as proficient pollinators.

Despite their beneficial ecological contributions, they can cause notable damage to wooden structures by drilling holes for nesting.

Distinguishing between males and females is crucial, as only females can sting.

Implementing preventive measures such as using paint, varnish, and traps, alongside mindful management, can mitigate damage while preserving their essential role in pollination.

Reader Emails

Over the years, our website, has received hundreds of letters and some interesting images asking us about carpenter bees. Scroll down to have a look at some of them.

Letter 1 – Carpenter Bee from Guam

What is this cute bug?
April 24, 2010
Hello, I was sitting on my porch when I herd something fall from the tree in my yard. I went over to see what it was and saw this cute bug struggling to get on it’s feet. It was brown, furry and about 2 inches in size. I do a lot of macro photography and I need to identify this bug for my photo site.
Thanks, Heather

Carpenter Bee

Hi Heather,
WE were surprised to see your letter is from Guam, because we were all ready to identify your bee as a male Valley Carpenter Bee, a common species in Southern California that exhibits sexual dimorphism.  Females are black and males are a lovely golden color with green eyes. 

We are confident your bee is a Carpenter Bee, and we would bet that it is also a male and that it might be a close relative of the Valley Carpenter Bee, Xylocopa varipuncta, though of that species BugGuide indicates:

Female is black with brassy reflections, perhaps. Male is a striking tawny brown. Apparently, no other Xylocopa are so sexually dimorphic.

Letter 2 – Carpenter Bee from Borneo

Subject: Insect Borneo
Location: borneo
November 13, 2015 1:04 am
In Danum, Sabah, Borneo, we saw this insect flying and resting.
Can you help us to put a name on it?
thank you
Signature: fred from belgium

Carpenter Bee
Carpenter Bee

Dear Fred,
We have a few images in our archive of this Carpenter Bee from Borneo.

Great! thanks a lot!
Beautyfull information!

Letter 3 – Carpenter Bee from Iraq

Subject:  Bug identification
Geographic location of the bug:  Iraq
Date: 12/12/2018
Time: 11:55 AM EDT
Your letter to the bugman:  Dear Mr. Bugman I found this kind of bee or bug on the street and it couldn’t fly for some reason… Its length about 3cm, width about 1cm
How you want your letter signed:  Raf

Carpenter Bee

Dear Raf,
This is a Carpenter Bee and we suspect it is a male because of the golden color.  Carpenter Bees in many parts of the world exhibit sexual dimorphism, meaning the males and females look very different from one another with females having black coloration and males having gold coloration.  See this image from our archives.


  • Bugman

    Bugman aka Daniel Marlos has been identifying bugs since 1999. is his passion project and it has helped millions of readers identify the bug that has been bugging them for over two decades. You can reach out to him through our Contact Page.

    View all posts
  • Piyushi Dhir

    Piyushi is a nature lover, blogger and traveler at heart. She lives in beautiful Canada with her family. Piyushi is an animal lover and loves to write about all creatures.

    View all posts

4 thoughts on “How Do Carpenter Bees Drill Holes? Unveiling Nature’s Crafty Crib-Makers”

  1. Galapagos Carpenter Bee (Xylocopa darwinii) is similar. We saw them in January, and our guide said we were very lucky to see the males since they aren’t around very long.

  2. This is probably a male Sonoran carpenter bee (Xylocopa sonorina). As far as I am aware, this is the only species of carpenter bee on Guam and they are very common.


Leave a Comment