Cicada Adaptations: Exploring Nature’s Intriguing Survival Skills

Cicadas are fascinating insects with unique adaptations that have enabled them to survive and thrive in various environments. Among these adaptations are their extraordinary life cycles and the ability to produce loud sounds for communication.

There are two main types of cicadas: annual, or dog-day cicadas, and periodical cicadas. Annual cicadas spend up to five years as nymphs underground, feeding on tree roots, but populations emerge every year. They typically have a green or camouflaged color to blend in with their surroundings. On the other hand, periodical cicadas emerge either every 13 or 17 years, depending on the species. Notably, these cicadas have distinct black bodies with large, red-brown eyes [1].

Cicada males have a unique adaptation called a tymbal organ, which allows them to produce their signature loud sounds to attract females for mating. This membrane on the sides of their bodies vibrates to create the “singing” that we commonly associate with these insects. The mating process then leads to another crucial aspect of the cicada life cycle; females lay eggs in tree branches, where the eggs hatch and fall to the ground, burying themselves underground to begin the cycle anew [1].

Cicada Life Cycle

Nymphs and Instars

Cicadas are fascinating insects known for their unique life cycles. The life cycle begins with the female cicada laying eggs in the bark of a tree limb1. Once the eggs hatch, cicada nymphs emerge and briefly feed on sap before dropping to the ground1. They then dig down and tunnel in search for roots to feed on1.

Cicada nymphs go through several instar stages, shedding their exoskeletons as they grow. For example, 17-year cicadas spend most of their lives underground, emerging as adults only after 13 or 17 years2. On the other hand, the annual cicada species have a shorter life cycle3.

Adults and Mating

Once nymphs complete their instar stages, they emerge from the ground as adults. Adult cicadas have bold adaptations like large red-brown eyes and membranous wings with orange veins4. They are known for their mating calls, where adult males produce loud courting sounds to attract females5.

The mating process is followed by egg-laying and the cycle restarts. It’s interesting to note that, despite their long life cycles, adult cicadas have a relatively short lifespan, usually just a few weeks3.

Comparison table: 17-year cicadas vs. annual cicadas

Feature 17-year cicadas Annual cicadas
Lifespan underground 13 or 17 years2 Shorter3
Adult lifespan A few weeks3 A few weeks3
Eyes Red-brown4 Similar4
Wings Membranous with orange veins4 Similar4

Adaptations and Evolution

Prime Number Emergence

Periodical cicadas, belonging to the genus Magicicada, have a unique life cycle with prime number emergence periods. They come out either every 13 or 17 years depending on the species. This prime number emergence helps them avoid predation by making it difficult for predators to synchronize with their cycle.

Example:

  • Magicicada septendecim emerges every 17 years
  • Magicicada tredecim emerges every 13 years

Predator Avoidance

Cicadas have developed various strategies for predator avoidance, such as:

  • Camouflage: Annual cicadas often have green or camouflaged colors, making them difficult to spot.
  • Loud mating calls: Adult males produce loud courting sounds to attract females and confuse predators.

Climate Change Resilience

While data on cicada adaptations to climate change is limited, their underground nymph stage may provide some resilience:

  • Nymphs feed on fluids from roots, allowing them to access moisture even during droughts.
  • Their long developmental period may increase their chances of surviving temperature fluctuations.

Comparison Table

Aspect Annual Cicadas Periodical Cicadas
Family Cicadidae Cicadidae
Order Hemiptera Hemiptera
Life cycle length Up to 5 years 13 or 17 years (prime)
Emergence cycle Every year Synchronized emergence
Camouflage Green/Varied colors Black body, red-brown eyes
Predator avoidance Camouflage Prime number emergence, loud mating calls
Climate change resilience Unknown, possibly limited Possible adaptation through nymph stage

Cicada Species and Varieties

Magicicada Broods

Magicicada is a genus of cicadas found in the United States. There are around 3,000 cicada species worldwide, but Magicicadas are unique due to their lengthy life cycle, spending 13 or 17 years underground. They are divided into broods based on their periodical emergence. Examples of Magicicada species include M. decim and M. cassini.

Some characteristics of Magicicadas:

  • Black bodies
  • Red-brown eyes
  • Live mostly in the eastern US
  • Known for synchronized mass emergences

Neotibicen

The Neotibicen cicadas, also known as “dog-day cicadas,” are more commonly found across North America. Unlike Magicicadas, these cicadas have a shorter life cycle, taking about 2 to 5 years to mature. They are often observed on tree branches during summer.

Features of Neotibicen cicadas:

  • Green or brown body
  • Black markings
  • Clear, fly-like wings

Greengrocer Cicadas

Greengrocer cicadas are native to Australia and known for their vibrant colors. Some popular varieties include the Yellow Monday, Double Drummer, and Black Prince. These species thrive not only in Australia but also in parts of Southeast Asia.

Greengrocer cicadas’ characteristics:

  • Brightly colored bodies
  • Large size
  • Loud, distinctive calls

Comparison Table:

Magicicada Neotibicen Greengrocer
Geographical Location Eastern US North America Australia, Southeast Asia
Life Cycle 13 or 17 years 2 to 5 years Varies by species
Notable Physical Traits Black body, red eyes Green/brown, clear wings Vivid colors
Call Sound Quality Cicadian rhythm Shrill buzz Distinctive calls

Cicada Songs and Communication

Singing and Mating Calls

Cicadas are well-known for their songs, usually produced by male cicadas to attract females for mating. Males “sing” by vibrating a membrane on the sides of their bodies1. The abdomen of male cicadas is almost completely hollow, allowing sound waves from the tymbals to bounce around, making the sound louder and altering the quality of the noise3.

An interesting aspect of cicadas’ singing is the variations in sound between different species. For example, periodical cicada emergences consist of three species, each with their own distinctive sound5. A curious event involving cicadas is the emergence of Brood X, which consists of billions of cicadas coming out of the ground after 17 years1. The loud, buzzing sound produced by these billions of cicadas can reach up to a trillion decibels.

Species Language Differences

Each cicada species has its own unique sound to avoid attracting the wrong cicada5. Males from different species adapt their mating calls to ensure they are not attracting undesired females. Also, cicadas may change their songs according to the time of the day; dogday cicadas, for instance, tend to sing more in late afternoon and evening5.

It is essential to mention that cicadas also produce other vocalizations besides mating calls. For example, they can make squawking sounds when handled or disturbed2. These distinctive vocalizations contribute to the overall communication and survival strategies of cicadas in their natural environment.

Pros and Cons of Cicada Vocalizations

Pros:

  • Attract desired females for mating
  • Warn other cicadas of danger or disturbances

Cons:

  • Attract predators due to the loud noise
  • Disturb humans if present in large numbers

Comparison of Cicada Species Mating Calls

Species Mating Call Characteristics Time of Day Preferred
Periodical Cicada (Brood X) Specific to each of the three species Throughout the day
Dogday Cicada Uniquely distinct from others Late afternoon and evening

Cicadas and Human Interaction

Teaching Resources

Cicadas, with their fascinating life cycles and unique adaptations, serve as excellent teaching resources for students. For example, some periodical cicadas emerge every 13 years while others emerge every 17 years. These insects offer valuable insights into biology, ecology, and evolution.

Cicadas in Culture and Literature

Cicadas have long been significant in various cultures worldwide. Over 3,000 cicada species exist, and each has inspired art, music, and theater. In some Asian cultures, the cicada symbolizes rebirth, health, wealth, and happiness.

  • Midwest: In the United States, cicadas are particularly prevalent in the Midwest, providing artists in that region a rich source of inspiration.
  • Literature: Cicadas have been featured in many works of literature, ranging from ancient Chinese poetry to contemporary novels.
  • Cultural significance of emergence: The regularity of periodical cicadas’ emergence (13 or 17 years) has been observed and documented in various cultures, celebrating the unique lifecycle of these insects.
  • Parasitoids: Certain parasitoids prey on cicadas, influencing the depictions of the insects in literature as well as their symbolism in different cultures.

In conclusion, cicadas have a substantial impact on human interactions, both as educational resources and as influential symbols in culture and literature.

Cicada Physical Characteristics

Stout Bodies and Large Compound Eyes

Cicadas are insects with stout bodies, measuring about 1-1.5 inches in length. They belong to the suborder Auchenorrhyncha, which also includes other hemipterans such as leafhoppers and spittlebugs1. One of the most noticeable features of cicadas is their large compound eyes, which are often red-brown in color and facilitate their lifestyle by helping them navigate their environment4.

Colorations and Markings

The bodies of cicadas display various colorations and markings, depending on the species. Some cicadas have green or brown bodies with contrasting black markings5. Interestingly, their wings are transparent, featuring orange veins, and the first pair is much longer than their abdomen2.

Here’s a comparison of two common cicada features:

Feature Description
Stout Bodies 1-1.5 inches long; robust and sturdy
Compound Eyes Large, red-brown; excellent vision for navigating environment

Some examples of cicada characteristics include:

  • Large compound eyes for improved vision
  • Stout bodies for durability and strength
  • Green or brown bodies with black markings for camouflage as needed

Footnotes

  1. https://naturalhistory.si.edu/sites/default/files/media/file/cicada-life-cycle-infographic-handout.pdf 2 3 4 5 6

  2. https://naturalhistory.si.edu/education/teaching-resources/life-science/periodical-cicadas 2 3 4

  3. https://askabiologist.asu.edu/cicada-life-cycle 2 3 4 5 6

  4. https://www.epa.gov/safepestcontrol/cicadas 2 3 4 5 6

  5. https://hgic.clemson.edu/factsheet/cicadas/ 2 3 4 5

Reader Emails

Over the years, our website, whatsthatbug.com has received hundreds of letters and some interesting images asking us about these insects. Scroll down to have a look at some of them.

Letter 1 – ANNOUNCING the Children's Version: The Curious World of Bugs

 

Thanks to John at Alberini’s Restaurant in Niles Ohio, we have decided that The Curious World of Bugs children’s version needs to have full page or even double truck illustrations that may be colored to approximate the coloration and markings of the actual insects in much the same way that Maria Sibylla Merian’s Caterpillar Books were all hand colored.  Daniel is pitching the idea to his editor Maria Gagliano at Penguin/Perigee.  The coloring book will include 18 pages of identical illustrations of a Cicada with a brief paragraph on each of the 18 Australian Cicadas with names like Yellow Monday, Blue Moon, Green Grocer, Chocolate Soldier and Double Drummer.  See pages 22-25 in The Curious World of Bugs.  Young readers may with adult supervision if necessary, locate images online of the various Cicadas so they might have an original to replicate, or they may just choose to be more creative with the interpretation of the name.  How would you color the Green Grocer Cicada if you had never seen a photograph of one?

Cicada Drawing

We couldn’t resist demonstrating that we are able to color digitally.  And now, The Green Grocer.

The Green Grocer, an Australian Cicada

Daniel Marlos writes in The Curious World of Bugs:  The Bugman’s Guide to the Mysterious and Remarkable Lives of Things That Crawl:  “Green Grocer, Cylochila australasiae: This highly variable cicada has a different common name for each of its color variations, with green being the most common color morph.  The Green Grocer is a reference to the vegetable venders of yore and might refer to the bright color of the insect, which is similar to the color of lightly blanched greens (as opposed to when they’re overcooked.”  Here is a photo of a Green Grocer from our archives and our Bug of the Month posting from December 2010.

Green Grocer Cicada from Australia. Photo by LC

Letter 2 – Noisy Tree

 

I have a neighbour who has a problem with a sound coming from a tree in his backyard ( we live in southern Ontario). It sounds quite a bit like a sqwaking bird but on investigation there does not seem to be a bird present. The sound begins at dusk and continues EVERY 5 seconds!!! through the night. My neighbour thinks that it may stop early in the morning ie around 2 am although this may just be the time he passes out because this thing has driven him to drink. Is it possible that a bug would produce such a loud, persistent, irrititating noise?
Thank you for your help.
BillyD

Dear BillyD,
Cicadas can be very loud, especially in the late summer.

Letter 3 – Possibly Mating Scissor Grinders

 

Missouri Cicadas Mating
Location:  Grandview, Missouri
October 1, 2010 9:58 am
My 6 year old is fascinated by bugs and she found these mating cicadas in our neighbor’s driveway in Grandview, Missouri. We love looking thru your sight to identify the various bugs she finds and we thought you might want to add these pictures to your collection.
Signature:  Glena Kellison

Mating Scissor Grinders, we believe

Hi Glena,
We believe, though we are not sure, that these may be mating Scissor Grinders,
Tibicen pruinosus, which is sometimes called a Silver Bellied Cicada according to BugGuide.  Sadly, your photo documentation did not include the bellies of this pair.  We believe the photo looks like the Scissor Grinders, but we cannot be certain.  We hope someone of our readers can confirm our identification since we are enamored of the name.  We thought after writing this that it might help provide evidence toward the proof or disproof of their identity to look at the Bugguide Data page on the Scissor Grinder to see at what time of year they appear.  There are no reported sightings in Missouri, but there are reported sightings in all the surrounding states.  Nearby Nebraska reports sightings as late as October, but there are numerous September sightings from the range.  That is evidence in support of our identification being correct.


Mating Scissor Grinders, unless we are wrong.

Very interesting, I’m sorry I did not take a picture of their bellies as I did not want to “disturb” them.  The photo on BugGuide “dog day cicada – Tibicen pruinosus” that was taken in Overland Park , KS looks just like the cicadas I took a picture of.  I live 15 minutes from Overland Park and the pictures I took were taken in early August if that helps you.  I promise next time they make an apperance I will snap a photo of their belly.
Thank you and keep up the awesome bug guide!

Update
May 15, 2011 4:51 pm
you are correct about the scissor grinder on bug love you called it a scissor grinder and thats correct.i collect all types of bugs like house centapedes and black widows and stuff like that,and im the only girl in my nieghbor hood who can identafy alot of types of bugs and my website isent face book its just a place to hang out on and if you need more help i can help
Signature: mackenzie

Letter 4 – Wing Snapper

 

Three Bugs from near Sedona, AZ
The second photo is of what looks like a cicada, but at one inch long, much smaller than the annual (green) cicada that we had back in southwest MO where I grew up; it was also smaller than the periodical red-eyed cicada that we had there. (Boy, the bass went nuts for those!) The annual cicadas that I am familiar with get really loud with their "singing," while these little guys made clicking sounds. I thought there was an electronic bug zapper somewhere, but it was the clicking of a bazillion of these things. They were thick as thieves in the Oak Creek Canyon area just northeast of Sedona in June 2003.If you can identify any of these, I’d be grateful.
Su — Mesa, AZ

Hi Su,
Your Cicada could be one of several species. Often Western Cicadas are much smaller than the Eastern Cicadas you are used to seeing. The Small Grass Cicada, Okanagana minuta is just over 1/2 an inch in length. “The color varies,” according to Essig, “from straw or tan to black or a combination of these colors, and with orange or pink blotches at the bases of the wings.” Your photo seems to illustrate such blotches. Vanduzee’s Cicada, Okanagana vanduzeri, is a common species that reaches 3/4 inch in length. It is also shiny black with irregular orange markings.

Hey, I see you posted my bugs! I thought you might be interested in another bugman’s take on this cicada. See his response below.
Regards, Su Su Rogers-Fink
Su,
The cicada pictured is Platypedia putnami and this is a wing snapper. Usually they’ll sit in a bush in numbers and do as you described by manipulating their wings which snap (sometimes called crepitating). Oh we have lots of fancy terms for sound production. Beyond that I don’t know much of their life history. I imagine they stay underground from 1-2 years, then emerge just as others do. We have about 35-40 species of cicadas in AZ, none quite like the 17 year. But they are quite fun. Anyway it is little wonder nobody knew about this cicada because its presence just isn’t spectacular so it takes a good naturalist to find them. Enjoy. Well I just did a google search and have copied and attached an article about this cicada. Funny I found another website that had all incorrect info so if you search this is the correct story. And funny thing, it looks like I copied it to tell you in my words above. Carl
Platypedia putnami http://www.nku.edu/~hastings/New%20Mexico%20Web/pputnami.htm
P. putnami , is an annual cicada that emerges from May to June. Their habitat tends to be mixed coniferous forests, and seem to prefer elevations from 1200 to 3000 meters. The genes of Playpedia use a different mode of signaling compared to their cousins, such as in the genes of Magicicada. This genes as well as most others use an organ called the timbal to produce courtship songs. In Platypedia, this organ is vestigial. Hence it is believed that the acoustic signal produced by Platypedia comes from the slapping of its wings either against its perch or its abdomen and possibly a combination of both. Dr. Allen Sanborn published a scientific paper in the Entomological Society of America about the acoustic signal of Platypedia putnami . He describes their signal as a sound produced from slapping the wings against a perch or other vegetation, or otherwise known as crepitations. There is not much known about this species of cicada and ongoing research is being done to explore their ecology and behavior. This site is dedicated to the research that has been done and will be done on this species.

Thank you, Carl! Crepetation is the sound my knees make. Maybe the cicadas were responding to my knees. Really appreciate your time. Regards, Su Carl Olson

Reader Emails

Over the years, our website, whatsthatbug.com has received hundreds of letters and some interesting images asking us about these insects. Scroll down to have a look at some of them.

Letter 1 – ANNOUNCING the Children's Version: The Curious World of Bugs

 

Thanks to John at Alberini’s Restaurant in Niles Ohio, we have decided that The Curious World of Bugs children’s version needs to have full page or even double truck illustrations that may be colored to approximate the coloration and markings of the actual insects in much the same way that Maria Sibylla Merian’s Caterpillar Books were all hand colored.  Daniel is pitching the idea to his editor Maria Gagliano at Penguin/Perigee.  The coloring book will include 18 pages of identical illustrations of a Cicada with a brief paragraph on each of the 18 Australian Cicadas with names like Yellow Monday, Blue Moon, Green Grocer, Chocolate Soldier and Double Drummer.  See pages 22-25 in The Curious World of Bugs.  Young readers may with adult supervision if necessary, locate images online of the various Cicadas so they might have an original to replicate, or they may just choose to be more creative with the interpretation of the name.  How would you color the Green Grocer Cicada if you had never seen a photograph of one?

Cicada Drawing

We couldn’t resist demonstrating that we are able to color digitally.  And now, The Green Grocer.

The Green Grocer, an Australian Cicada

Daniel Marlos writes in The Curious World of Bugs:  The Bugman’s Guide to the Mysterious and Remarkable Lives of Things That Crawl:  “Green Grocer, Cylochila australasiae: This highly variable cicada has a different common name for each of its color variations, with green being the most common color morph.  The Green Grocer is a reference to the vegetable venders of yore and might refer to the bright color of the insect, which is similar to the color of lightly blanched greens (as opposed to when they’re overcooked.”  Here is a photo of a Green Grocer from our archives and our Bug of the Month posting from December 2010.

Green Grocer Cicada from Australia. Photo by LC

Letter 2 – Noisy Tree

 

I have a neighbour who has a problem with a sound coming from a tree in his backyard ( we live in southern Ontario). It sounds quite a bit like a sqwaking bird but on investigation there does not seem to be a bird present. The sound begins at dusk and continues EVERY 5 seconds!!! through the night. My neighbour thinks that it may stop early in the morning ie around 2 am although this may just be the time he passes out because this thing has driven him to drink. Is it possible that a bug would produce such a loud, persistent, irrititating noise?
Thank you for your help.
BillyD

Dear BillyD,
Cicadas can be very loud, especially in the late summer.

Letter 3 – Possibly Mating Scissor Grinders

 

Missouri Cicadas Mating
Location:  Grandview, Missouri
October 1, 2010 9:58 am
My 6 year old is fascinated by bugs and she found these mating cicadas in our neighbor’s driveway in Grandview, Missouri. We love looking thru your sight to identify the various bugs she finds and we thought you might want to add these pictures to your collection.
Signature:  Glena Kellison

Mating Scissor Grinders, we believe

Hi Glena,
We believe, though we are not sure, that these may be mating Scissor Grinders,
Tibicen pruinosus, which is sometimes called a Silver Bellied Cicada according to BugGuide.  Sadly, your photo documentation did not include the bellies of this pair.  We believe the photo looks like the Scissor Grinders, but we cannot be certain.  We hope someone of our readers can confirm our identification since we are enamored of the name.  We thought after writing this that it might help provide evidence toward the proof or disproof of their identity to look at the Bugguide Data page on the Scissor Grinder to see at what time of year they appear.  There are no reported sightings in Missouri, but there are reported sightings in all the surrounding states.  Nearby Nebraska reports sightings as late as October, but there are numerous September sightings from the range.  That is evidence in support of our identification being correct.


Mating Scissor Grinders, unless we are wrong.

Very interesting, I’m sorry I did not take a picture of their bellies as I did not want to “disturb” them.  The photo on BugGuide “dog day cicada – Tibicen pruinosus” that was taken in Overland Park , KS looks just like the cicadas I took a picture of.  I live 15 minutes from Overland Park and the pictures I took were taken in early August if that helps you.  I promise next time they make an apperance I will snap a photo of their belly.
Thank you and keep up the awesome bug guide!

Update
May 15, 2011 4:51 pm
you are correct about the scissor grinder on bug love you called it a scissor grinder and thats correct.i collect all types of bugs like house centapedes and black widows and stuff like that,and im the only girl in my nieghbor hood who can identafy alot of types of bugs and my website isent face book its just a place to hang out on and if you need more help i can help
Signature: mackenzie

Letter 4 – Wing Snapper

 

Three Bugs from near Sedona, AZ
The second photo is of what looks like a cicada, but at one inch long, much smaller than the annual (green) cicada that we had back in southwest MO where I grew up; it was also smaller than the periodical red-eyed cicada that we had there. (Boy, the bass went nuts for those!) The annual cicadas that I am familiar with get really loud with their "singing," while these little guys made clicking sounds. I thought there was an electronic bug zapper somewhere, but it was the clicking of a bazillion of these things. They were thick as thieves in the Oak Creek Canyon area just northeast of Sedona in June 2003.If you can identify any of these, I’d be grateful.
Su — Mesa, AZ

Hi Su,
Your Cicada could be one of several species. Often Western Cicadas are much smaller than the Eastern Cicadas you are used to seeing. The Small Grass Cicada, Okanagana minuta is just over 1/2 an inch in length. “The color varies,” according to Essig, “from straw or tan to black or a combination of these colors, and with orange or pink blotches at the bases of the wings.” Your photo seems to illustrate such blotches. Vanduzee’s Cicada, Okanagana vanduzeri, is a common species that reaches 3/4 inch in length. It is also shiny black with irregular orange markings.

Hey, I see you posted my bugs! I thought you might be interested in another bugman’s take on this cicada. See his response below.
Regards, Su Su Rogers-Fink
Su,
The cicada pictured is Platypedia putnami and this is a wing snapper. Usually they’ll sit in a bush in numbers and do as you described by manipulating their wings which snap (sometimes called crepitating). Oh we have lots of fancy terms for sound production. Beyond that I don’t know much of their life history. I imagine they stay underground from 1-2 years, then emerge just as others do. We have about 35-40 species of cicadas in AZ, none quite like the 17 year. But they are quite fun. Anyway it is little wonder nobody knew about this cicada because its presence just isn’t spectacular so it takes a good naturalist to find them. Enjoy. Well I just did a google search and have copied and attached an article about this cicada. Funny I found another website that had all incorrect info so if you search this is the correct story. And funny thing, it looks like I copied it to tell you in my words above. Carl
Platypedia putnami http://www.nku.edu/~hastings/New%20Mexico%20Web/pputnami.htm
P. putnami , is an annual cicada that emerges from May to June. Their habitat tends to be mixed coniferous forests, and seem to prefer elevations from 1200 to 3000 meters. The genes of Playpedia use a different mode of signaling compared to their cousins, such as in the genes of Magicicada. This genes as well as most others use an organ called the timbal to produce courtship songs. In Platypedia, this organ is vestigial. Hence it is believed that the acoustic signal produced by Platypedia comes from the slapping of its wings either against its perch or its abdomen and possibly a combination of both. Dr. Allen Sanborn published a scientific paper in the Entomological Society of America about the acoustic signal of Platypedia putnami . He describes their signal as a sound produced from slapping the wings against a perch or other vegetation, or otherwise known as crepitations. There is not much known about this species of cicada and ongoing research is being done to explore their ecology and behavior. This site is dedicated to the research that has been done and will be done on this species.

Thank you, Carl! Crepetation is the sound my knees make. Maybe the cicadas were responding to my knees. Really appreciate your time. Regards, Su Carl Olson

Authors

    by
  • Bugman

    Bugman aka Daniel Marlos has been identifying bugs since 1999. whatsthatbug.com is his passion project and it has helped millions of readers identify the bug that has been bugging them for over two decades. You can reach out to him through our Contact Page.

  • Piyushi Dhir

    Piyushi is a nature lover, blogger and traveler at heart. She lives in beautiful Canada with her family. Piyushi is an animal lover and loves to write about all creatures.

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