Currently viewing the category: "Galls"
What's That Bug? does not endorse extermination

Subject:  What is this egg sack from?
Geographic location of the bug:  Decatur, IN
Date: 11/27/2017
Time: 06:32 AM EDT
My grandson and I found this at the bus stop this morning and would like to know what it is and what we should do with it.
How you want your letter signed:  Adventurous G-ma

Oak Leaf Gall

Dear Adventurous G-ma,
This is not an egg sack.  It is an Oak Apple Gall, and it was formed when a Gall Wasp lays an egg on an oak leaf, causing a growth that serves as food for the developing Gall Wasp larva.  Galls do not harm the tree.  Similar images can be found on Buckeye Yard & Garden Online and Missouri Botanical Garden.   Interestingly, Alfred Kinsey, the famous entomologist, studied Gall Wasps before he turned his scientific methods to humans which resulted in the famous (and infamous) Kinsey Reports.  Kinsey founded the Institute for Sex Research at Indiana University and his reports resulted in the publication of the groundbreaking “Sexual Behavior in the Human Male” in 1948 and “Sexual Behavior in the Human Female” in 1953.  They were best selling books that changed the way America and the world think about human sexual behavior.

So…are there wasp  larvae in it or is it empty?

We suspect it is empty.

What's That Bug? does not endorse extermination

Subject:  Is this an insect sac?
Geographic location of the bug:  Southeast MO
Date: 10/07/2017
Time: 08:10 PM EDT
Found Oct 7, 2017 bear Lampe, MO.
How you want your letter signed:  PJ

Oak Gall

Dear PJ,
This is a Oak Gall, probably caused by a Gall Wasp in the family Cynipidae.  According to Henderson State University:  “Galls are abnormal, vegetative growths that are usually formed as a response by plants to the action of fungus, mites, or insects such as wasps, aphids, and true bugs. Galls can be formed in the leaves, petioles (stem) of leaves, twigs, buds, or on the roots.”  More information on Galls can be found on Arborilogical.  Your Gall looks similar, but distinctly different than the Eastern Speckled Oak Gall pictured on ISA Texas.

What's That Bug? does not endorse extermination

Subject: Strange Egg Sac
Location: Effingham, IL
September 10, 2016 7:19 pm
Hi,
I found this strange (what I believe is an) egg sac on a fallen leaf in Effingham, IL. I know you identify insects. Are you able to identify their eggs as well? Assuming this is an insect egg… Thanks!
Signature: Best, Jennifer

Spiny Oak Leaf Gall

Hedgehog Gall

Dear Jennifer,
This is a Gall, a growth appearing on a plant that might be caused by an insect, other arthropod or even an injury.  We found a very similar image on the Blue Jay Barrens blog, but the only information is:  “The oak leaves are developing some wonderful galls. I’m not sure how large these pea sized growths will eventually become.”  We found an image on Field Biology in Southeastern Ohio with the information:  “Spiny Hedgehog Galls. The yellow gum drop covered in red hairs makes this wasp
Acraspis erinacei. ”  Another similar image is on the Springfield Plateau blog and the name Hedgehog Gall is used.  Hedgehog Gall is also the name used on BugGuide and according to BugGuide:  “Forms galls on white oak (Quercus alba). The sexual generation forms galls on the buds, and the agamic generation forms the distinctive ‘hedgehog’ galls (ellipsoid, up to 13 mm in diameter, covered with red hairs, with 3-5 larval cells inside) on leaves. Females emerge from the leaf galls in the fall (October-December) and crawl to the buds to oviposit. The resulting gall is a thin-walled blister on the inner face of a bud scale, appearing as the buds start to open in the spring.”

Hi Daniel,
Thank you so much for sharing!  How incredibly interesting.  Nature is amazing.
Best,
Jennifer

What's That Bug? does not endorse extermination

Subject: eggs on roses leaves
Location: Japan
June 4, 2016 6:08 pm
Hi!
I found these on the leaves of one of my roses in Japan.
Tried to google it, but couldn’t find them on the net….
It would be great to know !
Thank you!
Signature: Dasha

Spiny Rose Leaf Gall

Spiny Rose Leaf Gall

Dear Dasha,
These are not really eggs.  The are Galls, growths on plants that are usually caused by insects.  According to the University of Minnesota:  “Galls are abnormal plant growths caused by various organisms (insects, mites, nematodes, fungi, bacteria, and viruses). This publication will deal with galls caused by the feeding or egg- laying activity of insects and mites. Because of their unusual forms and colors, galls often cause homeowners to become concerned. However, galls seldom threaten plant health and their numbers are highly variable from season to season. For those reasons, control is generally not suggested. How are galls formed?  Galls are formed by insect/mite feeding or egg-laying activity. Either mechanical damage or salivary secretions (introduced by insects and/or mites) initiate increased production of normal plant growth hormones. These plant hormones cause localized plant growth that can result in increases in cell size (hypertrophy) and/or cell number (hyperplasia). The outcome is an abnormal plant structure called a gall.
Gall formation generally occurs during the accelerated growth period (late spring) of new leaves, shoots, flowers, etc. Mature plant tissues are usually unaffected by gall-inducing organisms. The gall-making organism develops inside the gall and the gall continues to grow as the insect/mite feeds and matures. Once gall formation is initiated, many galls will continue to form even if the insect dies. In addition, most galls are usually not noticed until they are fully formed and remain on plants for extended periods of time (more than a season).”  We believe your Galls are Spiny Rose Leaf Calls that are caused by the Gall Wasp,
Diplolepis polita, thanks to a matching image on Ereimer.net.  We verified the identification on BugGuide.  We will be postdating your wonderful submission to go live during our absence from the office next week.

Spiny Rose Leaf Gall

Spiny Rose Leaf Gall

Thank you Daniel for your quick and thorough response!
Wish you a lovely Sunday!
Dasha

What's That Bug? does not endorse extermination

Subject: What is it
Location: Central florida
March 31, 2016 9:23 am
We found this on our blueberries
What is it?
Signature: Larry32773

Galls on Blueberries

Galls on Blueberries

Dear Larry32773,
This has been on our back burner for the past week, and though we have done some research, we have drawn a blank.  Our initial thought is this is some type of Gall.  A Gall is a growth on a plant that can be caused by an insect or by some other organism.  These Galls, if that is what they are, do not appear to be caused by an insect.  We will continue to research this matter.

Galls on Blueberries

Galls on Blueberries

Thank you.
I was thinking it might be a fungus if not an insect.
Larry Lackey

Some Galls are caused by fungus infections.

What's That Bug? does not endorse extermination

Subject: Cocoon
Location: Westminster Maryland
April 3, 2016 10:43 am
In pine tree
Signature: Barry

Cedar Apple Rust Gall

Cedar Apple Rust Gall

Hi Barry,
This is not a cocoon.  It is a Gall.  According to Wayne’s Word:  “Galls are caused by many organisms living on plants, including insects, mites, mistletoe, fungi and bacteria.”  This marvelous website continues with “The mysterious origin of strange growths on the stems, leaves, flowers and roots of plants have intrigued naturalists for centuries. Called galls or hypertrophies, these tumorous (neoplasmic) outgrowths develop from rapid mitosis and morphogenesis of plant tissues and come in an astounding array of colors, shapes and sizes. Galls may be smooth, spiny or fuzzy, and resemble everything from marbles and ping-pong balls to dunce caps, saucers and sea urchins. Many galls provide the food and brooding structure for various species of harmless insects.”  The Propaedeuticist makes up in images what it lacks in information regarding your particular Gall, the Cedar Apple Rust Gall,
Gymnosporangium juniperivirginianae.  The Missouri Botanical Garden also refers to two additional, closely related species of fungus in stating:  “All three rusts can infect most varieties of eastern red cedar (Juniperus virginiana) as well as many other junipers and an alternate host. Of these alternate hosts, cedar-apple rust is primarily a disease of apples and crabapples. Cedar-hawthorn rust, in addition to affecting apples and crabapples, sometimes infects pears, quince, and serviceberry. Cedar-quince rust has the broadest host range and can infect many genera in the rose family. In addition to those plants already mentioned, mountain-ash, flowering quince, cotoneaster, chokecherry, and photinia are also hosts for this disease.”  Your tree is a cedar, not a pine.  The Missouri Botanical Garden site also states:  “Symptoms on juniper: Brown, perennial galls form on twigs. When mature (usually in two years), the galls swell and repeatedly produce orange, gelatinous telial horns during rainy spring weather. The galls of cedar-apple rust are often over 2 inches in diameter, while cedar-hawthorn rust galls are rarely over 2 inches in diameter. Occasionally the twig beyond the gall dies, but usually no significant damage occurs on the juniper host.”  If you or a neighbor has an apple orchard, there may be additional cause for alarm as the site states as the leaves of apple trees are affected, according to the Missouri Botanical Garden, when:  “Circular, yellow spots (lesions) appear on the upper surfaces of the leaves shortly after bloom. In late summer, brownish clusters of threads or cylindrical tubes (aecia) appear beneath the yellow leaf spots or on fruits and twigs. The spores associated with the threads or tubes infect the leaves (needles) and twigs of junipers during wet, warm weather.”

Fanmail June 22, 2017
Hey thanks!
The other day I came across your page here, where you linked to the Missouri Botanical Garden: https://www.whatsthatbug.com/category/attack-of-the-fungus/
So, couple things…
Thing #1: Thanks for the suggestion! I LOVE this garden but have never been. It inspired me to go learn a bit more about it. Which is why…
Thing #2: I also added that garden to a huge guide I wrote called “55 Stunning Botanical Gardens to See Before You Die.” Since you already mention the Missouri Botanical Garden on your page, I thought my guide would make a really good complement to your article if you wanted to add the link.
Here it is: https://www.sproutabl.com/gardening/botanical-gardens/
It would knock my socks off if you added it, but let me know what you think of the post in any case!
What do you think?
🙂  Winston

Hi Winston,
You may or may not want to put your socks back on.

What's That Bug? does not endorse extermination