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What's That Bug? does not endorse extermination

Breaking News: 31 March 2009: 8:22 PM
Well, we figured out why our Angelfish have been acting so aggressively. They spawned. There are eggs on the leaf of a plant facing away from the front of the tank. We got suspicious because two angels kept cleaning the leaf and they were chasing all fish out of the territory, including the adorable Panda Cats.

Angelfish tends to Eggs

Angelfish tends to Eggs

We managed to get a few blurry photos before the camera batteries died. It was difficult to get a good angle on the eggs. Just before noticing the eggs, we got this nice image of the couple.

Pair of Angelfish

Pair of Angelfish

This definitely explains the aggressive behavior. Guess we won’t be getting those Rams we wanted. We might need to try to pawn our injured Angelfish off on Dean at Tropical Imports. We can’t believe five days after buying our Angelfish we have had a spawning. The aggression obviously began at Pasadena Tropical Fish before we brought our four fish home. A bit more research has revealed that our Angelfish are Silver Pearlscales, we believe.

Update: 2 April 2009: 10:00 PM
We worked a long shift yesterday and returned home to find the injured Angelfish hiding in the top corner. We decided that upon returning from work today, we would take it to Tropical Imports to board for a time to see if the pectoral fins grew back and the fish could be reintroduced to our aquarium. things seemed different. The Angelfish were no longer near the leaf where the spawning occurred and the Tetras were now in that area of the tank. The Angelfish had been keeping them away. We looked at the eggs and they were all gone except for a single fungus riddled egg. We assumed the Angelfish had eaten their spawn and that was that. We talked to Dean, caught the injured Angelfish, and took him to the shop. The new Rams that had arrived Monday were gorgeous, so we bought 4. Upon getting them home, we had inverse buyer’s remorse, and returned to buy 2 more. We then went to our Land Use meeting. When we got back home, we were in for a surprise. Most of the fish were on the left side of the tank, and the Angelfish were in the lower right. We looked closer at a leaf that was getting too much attention, and low and behold, there were hatched fry clinging to the leaf wriggling in the current. The eggs had hatched during the day and the parents moved the hatchlings.

Angelfish with Hatchlings 2 April 2009

Angelfish with Hatchlings 2 April 2009

We have Fry!!!
Things were getting even more interesting. It seems as though all three Angelfish are keeping their tankmates at bay. Could our fish be having a Ménage à Trois??? It seems that it may be so. We believe we have heard of this behavior before. Had we known that the spawn was still viable, we might not have gotten the Rams, but now they are in the tank. They seem to be happy, and we wonder how even three parents are going to protect the hatchlings once they are free swimming. Dare we get another aquarium? This has gotten to be a very expensive endeavor. At least we are doing our bit for economic stimulus.

Angelfish and Hatchlings 2 April 2009

Angelfish and Hatchlings 2 April 2009

One of the Angelfish seems to be paying the most attention to the hatchlings, and the other two are playing guard duty. From what we have been reading, Angelfish are sometimes difficult to induce to spawn. Seems our fish are the exception. Even Dean was surprised when he saw the size of the Angelfish we brought in to board. He thought it looked small to be spawning size. At that point in time, we were under the erroneous assumption that the parents had eaten the eggs.

Update: 4 April 2009: 5:48 AM
It seems the fry are gone. But where is the question. We turn on the hall light in the morning so just a bit of light spills into the aquarium. We don’t turn on the aquarium light until there is daylight in the room and the tank is now on a timer from 3 PM to about 11:45 PM. The fry are not where they were yesterday, which was an excellent location for seeing them. The angelfish are now protecting the rear of the aquarium. Once there is more light in the room, we will try to figure out what is happening. When we returned home last night, the fry were noticeably larger. Here is a nice website with a good photo chronicle of spawning angelfish in a community aquarium and how the owner successfully reared young. I am going to try to borrow an aquarium from Daryl next door and then get a few cheap accessories today from Tropical Imports. I will try to do this late morning today, and if Daryl is not home, I may just buy a ten gallon aquarium from Tropical Imports because I want to include some of the water I siphon out of the original tank which is a task for today. I hope Dean buys brine shrimp eggs.

Update: 4 April 2009: 3:00 PM
We siphoned water out of the aquarium to fill the 10 Gallon JEBO R338 aquarium Daryl let us use. The filter works and the heater works and the pump works, but the hood need a new bulb and starter. After we refilled the aquarium with fresh water, we noticed that the fry had been moved again to the crown of a sucker Amazon Sword Plant. We keep accusing the Angelfish of being bad parents that may be eating the spawn, and they continue to pleasantly surprise us.

angelfish_fry_20090404

Angelfish Fry 4 April 2009

Now that we are certain we still have fish, we will try to get a few out and put them in the new aquarium before they get sucked into the filter, get eaten, or have some other tragedy befall them.

Intervention: Sunday 4 April 2009: 9:36 PM
We set up the aquarium Daryl gave us and went to Tropical Imports with a list of things to get. Sadly, we didn’t get all we wanted. We wanted brine shrimp eggs, an aeration stone, small tubing, large tubing for a siphon, a plastic box for holding fish with a clamp on the side, a new bulb for the light, a starter for the light, plants for the new aquarium, charcoal filter cartridge and filtering medium. We didn’t get the brine shrimp eggs, one of the most important items. Then we went to the fabric store and bought ivory bridal organza to cover the filter intake so the fry don’t get sucked up. We called other aquarium stores but either they didn’t have brine shrimp eggs or they were closed. We finally thought of E-Que and Wacko as places that might have Sea Monkeys, but Y-Que didn’t answer and Wacko was closing in 15 minutes, but they had Sea Monkeys. They will open tomorrow at noon and I guess I will be waiting for the door to open. Then we prepared a critter catcher plastic tank by filling it with aquarium water, adding the aeration stone and a plant and floating it in the aquarium. We tried to siphon off a few of the fry, and inadvertently caught more than we intended. We only wanted to get about 10, but we suspect we got about 30. We put them in the floating plastic tank and left the remaining fry for the parents to protect.

Fry Tank

Fry Tank

We managed to take a few photos of the fry in the fry tank.

Fry 20090404

Fry: Day 6 after spawning 20090404

Some of the fry are on the bottom of the fry tank and others are clinging to the pot with the Java Fern. Their yolk sacs are still quite large, so the Sea Monkeys will have a few days to hatch once we buy them. Once the fry have been free swimming for a few days, we will transfer the ones in the fry tank to the prepared 10 gallon JEBO tank.

Fry 20090404

Fry: Day 6 after spawning 20090404

Update: Monday 6 April 2009, 8:50 AM
We photographed our Rams yesterday, but the images are a bit blurry.

Blue Rams

Blue Rams

The fry we siphoned from the brood are still not free swimming and are still in the floating fry tank. Parents have noticed them and keep trying to retrieve them through the plastic in order to return them to the nursery they continue to move and guard. Yesterday, the nursery was moved to a difficult to see location, and we believe it is still in the same location. We covered the filter intake with organza to keep the fry from being sucked inot our filter. We are uncertain how many fry are remaining in the parent’s care since they are so difficult to see between the plants. We bought frozen baby brine shrimp in the event our brine shrimp eggs don’t hatch before they are needed. We wasted $10 on a Sea Monkey kit that included a crazy plastic tank. There were some, in our opinion, unnecessary items like water conditioner, and it seems the eggs are included in the salt package, and there only seems to be about 100 eggs. Nowhere near enough to feed our soon to be hungry brood. Luckily Pasadena Tropical Fish had the Brine Shrimp eggs and the frozen baby brine shrimp, justifying our drive yesterday afternoon to east Pasadena. We just photographed the parents trying to retrieve the fry, but we haven’t turned on the aquarium light yet.

Angelfish:  parent tries to retrieve fry

Angelfish: parent tries to retrieve fry

Update: Monday 6 April 2009, 9:30 PM
There was good news and bad news today. First we moved the plastic critter catcher tank into the nursery tank in the bathroom and floated it to stablize the temperature. The fry started swimming freely today and we fed them some newly hatched brine shrimp this afternoon. They had another healthy feeding of newly hatched brine shrimp after we returned from work. You can see their bulging pink bellies.

Free Swimming Fry 6 April 2009, 9:30 PM

Free Swimming Fry: Day 7 after spawing 6 April 2009, 9:30 PM

The bad news is that we cannot locate the fry in the community tank and the parent Angelfish are not guarding any portions of the tank. They seem to be more peaceful as well. We suspect that as the fry started free swimming, they got eaten by the Rams and Tetras. We removed the organza from the filter intake since it was clogged and the filter was not working very well. We are contemplating getting another aquarium, a 40 Regular, to raise our little Anglefish. Chances are the parents will spawn again in a week or two and we are going to try to continue to save some of the hatchlings. We don’t like the idea of trying to take eggs away from the parents, but siphoning our some of the small fry before they are free swimming worked nicely. That second aquarium would be a nice place to try keeping a Discus or two as well.

Free Swimming Fry 6 April 2009, 9:30 PM

Free Swimming Fry 6 April 2009, 9:30 PM

Update: Friday 10 April, 2009, 8:10 AM
Our Fry are growing!!!
Several things have happened since we last updated this page. Two of the Angelfish began harassing the third Angelfish. It was getting bad. Scales were flying and the poor guy that was low on the pecking order was hiding, but constantly pursued by the aggressive pair. Seems the nontraditional relationship had run its course and the dominant fish had won out. Wednesday afternoon, we took the battered Angelfish to join its former tankmate at Tropical Imports and we ordered a 50 gallon aquarium for housing the growing fry. We know the fry will not be ready for that new home for at least a month, but the tank will not be delivered until next Friday anyways. We will then have two to three weeks for the tank to cycle before we introduce the brood to a new home. We also have plans to reclaim the two Angelfish that are boarding at Tropical Imports. Hopefully, separated from the aggressive pair, they will be able to cohabitate in peace. We are not really fearful of them fighting with the sexually immature fry.

Angelfish Fry:  Day 11 after spawning

Angelfish Fry: Day 11 after spawning

Speaking of the fry, they are growing. We have been feeding them newly hatched baby brine shrimp nauplii, and we hope to wean them onto frozen baby brine (much less trouble for us) and dry food in the next few days before we resume work. The fry are still in the small fry tank, and we don’t want to move them into the 10 gallon nursery tank just yet. The fry tank is floating in the nursery tank so that the heater can keep the water at 84º-86º F.

Angelfish Fry:  Day 11 after spawning (10 April 2009)

Angelfish Fry: Day 11 after spawning (10 April 2009)

The pair seem to be preparing to spawn again, 11 days after the first spawning. The breeding tubes have been extended for a few days now, the male’s appearing first. They are cleaning various sites, including the filter return pipe near the top of the aquarium. We don’t like that location as we often feed the fish from that point. We suppose the parents know best though, and we will modify the feeding routine if necessary.

Update: 24 April 2009, 2:05 AM
We just located this account of Breeding Angelfish that is quite similar to what we did, except our pair did care for the eggs and newly hatched fry.

What's That Bug? does not endorse extermination

Update: 25 March 2009, 11:30 PM
We just got home from work after a very late night teaching, and we decided to test the aquarium water nitrites. Can it really be true? Have they really dropped to .25 ppm? Tomorrow morning we will do the battery of tests just to make sure. If the news is true, we will be picking up those gorgeous Angelfish this week. On another note, there is a problem with the plants. At first we thought that the leaves were turning brown, but it appears to be brown algae covering the leaves. We are wondering if the aquarium needed to cycle first before the plants start to thrive. The plants are actually not doing badly except for this brown algae film.
Here is what we found on the Tropical Tank Website: “”Brown algae” (diatoms)
This is often the first algae to appear in a newly set-up tank, where conditions have yet to stabilise. It will often appear around the 2-12 week period, and may disappear as quickly as it arrived when the conditions stabilise after a couple of months. It is essential to minimise nutrient levels to ensure the algae disappears – avoid overfeeding and carry out the appropriate water changes, gravel and filter cleaning, etc. Limiting the light will not deter this algae, as it can grow at low lighting levels and will normally out-compete green algae under these conditions.
If brown algae appears in an established tank, check nitrate and phosphate levels. Increased water changes or more thorough substrate cleaning may be necessary. Using a phosphate-adsorbing resin will also remove silicates, which are important to the growth of this algae. However, as noted above, it is essentially impossible to totally eliminate algae with this strategy alone. Due to its ability to grow at low light levels, this algae may also appear in dimly lit tanks, where old fluorescent bulbs have lost much of their output. If a problem does occur, otocinclus catfish are known to clear this algae quickly, although you may need several for larger tanks, and they can be difficult to acclimatise initially.
There are some very plausible theories as to why this algae often appears in newly set up tanks and then later disappears. If the silicate (Si) to phosphate (P) ratio is high, then diatoms are likely to have a growth advantage over true algae types and Cyanobacteria. Some of the silicate may come from the tapwater, but it will also be leached from the glass of new aquaria, and potentially from silica sand/gravel substrates to some extent. Later, when this leaching has slowed, and phosphate is accumulating in the maturing tank, the Si:P ratio will change in favour of phosphate, which is likely to favour the growth of green algae instead. “

Water Test 26 March 2009

Water Test 26 March 2009

Update: 26 March 2009, 6:30 AM
Well, we tested the water at the crack of dawn and found all was well. The nitrites had in fact dropped to .25 ppm. Here are results:
Nitrites: .25 ppm
Nitrates: 5.0 ppm
pH: 7.0
Ammonia: 0 ppm
So, we are being bad tomorrow and going into work late just so we can get the Angelfish.

Update: 27 March 2009, 8:42 AM
Our nitrites have dropped to 0 ppm.

Update: Sunday 29 March 2009: 5:50 AM
Friday morning we brought home our four beautiful Angelfish. Seems there was a pecking order established in the small tank at Pasadena Tropical Fish where our beauties shared a tank with various gold and marbled angels. One of our fish has stubs for pectoral fins. The smallest of our four Angelfish is an aggressor, and is now nipping the fins on the other fish. We added some Stress Coat+ with Aloe Vera to the water to help with the relocation and to help promote fin regrowth. Other than the situation with the pectoral fins, our new Angelfish have adapted well to their planted home. We have also seen the tetras going for the fins of the Angelfish, but we hope the community we are establishing will get along well. Our Angelfish have the typical wild stripe pattern, but the scales look like crumpled tin foil. We are quite certain we don’t have wild caught fish, and we don’t know the name of this variety. We may have to join some cichlid forum to get information. Yesterday evening, we returned to Tropical Imports and bought two Corydoras Catfish. Dean called them Panda Cats. We need to find out the scientific name. They are so playful. We will probably return today and get two more. We are contemplating getting a small Hypostomus plecostomus to eat algae. The rams we had our eye on when we originally bought the aquarium have been sold, but Dean said a new shipment will be coming in on Monday. Right now, we are thinking the tank may be getting a bit crowded. 40 is not that large in the scheme of things.

Update: 31 March 2009:  7:19 PM
We returned to Tropical Imports Sunday morning and bought three more Panda Corydoras Catfish.  They are so cute when they school together.  We continue to be concerned about our injured Angelfish.  The other Angelfish continue to nip its already stumpy pectoral fins.  It seems all the Angelfish are acting aggressively toward one another.

Three Angelfish Sparring

Three Angelfish Sparring

The injured fish has locked lips with the most aggressive of its companions as if to say “Don’t push me around,” yet it generally hangs out near the surface, trying to avoid the other Angelfish.  The other three, though they fight, seem to spend time together.  Another Emperor Tetra casualty today.  Perhaps they were just not meant for this tank.  Of the remaining seven, six school together and one hangs out alone at the bottom of the tank near the rocks.
Fish Count is as follows.
Glowlight Tetras 7
Blue Emperor Tetras 7
Cardinal Tetras 8
Black Phantom Tetras 4
Angelfish 4 (though I am considering asking Dean if I can board the injured fish at Tropical Imports to see if its fins grow back)
Panda Cats 5
I haven’t checked if the Rams arrived yesterday.  Dean suggested I wait a few days to see how they are doing before I buy any.
Water is still doing fine.  There is no detectable nitrite nor ammonia and the pH is still 7.  I bought worms for the fish on Saturday, and they love them.  The injured Angelfish has a good appetite at least.  I also bought a timer so the lights can go on automatically at 3 PM while it is still daylight.  The room is dark, but there is some indirect daylight that reaches the aquarium.  The lights are set to go off at 11 PM.  I may change that to 11:30 to accommodate my late return on Wednesday nights.

Angelfish

Angelfish

I shot some photos of my Angelfish to include in this post.  There was a slow shutter speed, so there is movement when the fish are sparring.

What's That Bug? does not endorse extermination

Friday, 13 March, 2009
Last week we decided to take the plunge and set up that long desired aquarium. We ordered a 40 gallon tall tank with plain pne cabinet from Tropical Imports on Colorado Boulevard in Glendale California. The staff, especially Dean, has been most helpful with advice, remaining courteous despite often numerous telephone calls a day. It took a week for the aquarium to arrive, but Monday past, 9 March, it arrived and we brought it home. Luckily Frank was riding his bicycle past the house and he helped us carry the heavy aquarium into the living room. That day we stained the cabinet Mediterranean Olive with the left over stain from the bathroom remodel. Tuesday afternoon we polyurethaned the cabinet and asked neighbor Daryl to help put the tank on the stand. It took several hours to set up the Rena XP3 cannister filter, fill the tank with three bags of flourite gravel, arrange the stone bridge, plant the Amazon Sword, Giant Sagittaria Eel Grass and Papyrus from the outdoor fountain, and finally fill the tank with water. We primed the filter, dechlorinated the water and tested the Ph which came in at 7.6. Since we put peat in the filter, we hoped to reduce the alkalinity in a few days so we could add some Amazon Tetras. Dave from Tropical Imports convinced us to buy a CO2 system to keep the plants healthy. In two days after the Ph had dropped to 7.2, we returned to Tropical Imports and bought the “canary in the coal mine” which consisted of six Glowlight Tetras, Hemigrammus erthrozonus, which are barely visible on the left side of the tank under the thermometer. Our impatience began to get the best of us and we were chomping at the bit to buy a school of Emperor Tetras as well. We returned to Tropical Imports a few hours later and bought twelve of the little beauties, only to find after doing some web research that there are several similar looking species that are sold as Emperor Tetras. We believe we got the Blue Emperor Tetra, Inpaichthys kerri, which has an adipose fin, and not the true Emperor Tetra, Nematobrycon palmeri, which has the trident tail on the male. Alas, we will grow to love our Blue Emperor Tetras despite the error in our purchase. In the future, we plan to get additional Tetras, Angel Fish, Rams, and maybe even a Discus or two.

Aquarium:  March 12, 2009

Aquarium: March 12, 2009

Next Morning: Friday the 13 of March, 2009, all the fish are still alive and swimming.

Update: Monday 16 March 2009
Against the advice we received at Tropical Imports, we decided to introduce more fish. First, we returned one Blue Emperor Tetra that was not eating and was looking kind of bloated with portruding scales. Nervous that it might have some contageous disease, and without a proper quarantine area, the tetra went back to the store and we didn’t even ask for a refund. It seems the delicate amonia/nitrite/nitrate balance is still a bit confusing to us. Fish produce ammonia, and that contributes to the nitrate levels. Plants help convert the toxic ammonia and nitrite into nitrate, and bacteria is also necessary for this whole process. At our age, the learning curve on this might be steep.
Until the aquarium finds a balance, it is typical to just introduce a few “cycle fish” until the tank is seasoned. But we were impatient, hence the purchase of the Blue Emperor Tetras. Things did get worse. We bought 10 Cardinal Tetras, Paracheirodon axelrodi, on Saturday from Sunset Aquarium for $23. Alas, this morning, there were two fatalities. If that wasn’t bad enough, we went to Petco in Pasadena yesterday and fell in love with 4 Black Phantom Tetras, Megalamphodus megalopterus, and two more Glowlight Tetras. The new Glowlight Tetras do not have as pronounced an orange stripe as the original 6, but we hope they color up soon. Our tally is now 8 Glowlight Tetras, 11 Blue Emperor Tetras (one of original 12 having been returned), 8 Cardinal Tetras (2 of original 10 deceased after 36 hours) and 4 Black Phantom Tetras. We know we have two many fish right now for an unseasoned tank that needs cycling, but our error will hopefully not result in mass annihilation if we monitor our tank balance. Our reasoning was that the fish were small, and they have more than a gallon of water each. This morning we plan to buy a few more plants and get a siphon hose so we can do a partial water change soon. We are about to test and post our water results.

Water Test 20090316

Water Test 20090316

Here are the results of our water tests from bottom to top
Nitrate: .25 ppm
Ammonia: 1.0 ppm
pH: 7.2
Nitrate: 5.0 ppm
We now must buy some siphon tubing in preparation for a partial water change. We also want to get a few more plants and a tool to reach the bottom of the very tall tank.

We did buy the siphon system as well as a long handled plant pruner/planter. We got a few plants, but the names escape us. One looked like a spadderdock, and Dean through in a few clippings of water wisteria that are floating on top. When we siphoned out 8 Gallons of water, we replaced 5 gallons of Yosemite bottled water.

Update: 19 March 2009
We tested the water again and the nitrite levels seem to be rising. Here are the results.
Nitrite: 2.0 ppm
Nitrate: 5.0 ppm
pH: 7.0
Ammonia: .5
We added more of the Cycle Bacteria culture and we had a few more fish casualties. We lost one Blue Emperor Tetra and one of the Petco Glowlights.

Water Test 20090319

Water Test 20090319

Update: 21 March 2009
We tested the water this morning and have these results.
Nitrite: 2.0 ppm
Nitrate: 5.0 ppm
pH: 7.0
Ammonia: .25

We have also had additional fish losses. We currently have 8 Blue Emperor Tetras (though one does not look so good), 7 Glowlight Tetras, 8 Cardinal Tetras and 4 Black Phantom Tetras (perhaps we are being paranoid, but one does not seem as active as the other three). The algae is starting to grow on the glass, so we may head to Tropical Imports to buy a glass scraper. The papyrus is beginning to throw up new shoots. We will do a 5 to 8 gallon water change today and add more Cycle. The last time we changed water, we didn’t fill the tank to the top, allowing about 3 inches for plants to grow out of the water.

Water Test 20090321

Water Test 20090321

So, the ammonia is improving, but the Nitrites are still high.

Update: 22 March 2009
After testing the water yesterday, I changed about 8 gallons of water. I carefully tempered the water so it would not be too cold, but after changing the water, the aquarium temperature was 72 degrees. I discovered that the heater wasn’t working and returned it. I checked the names of the plants I last bought, Cryptocoryne red wendtii and Java Fern. I also bought a new Cryptocoryne spiralis. I also bought an algae scraper. When I planted the new plants, I rearranged the rocks a bit to provide more planting room behind and on both sides.

Today, I found a new aquarium store in Pasadena called Pasadena Tropical Fish. Imagine my delight to find 4 gorgeous striped Angelfish, but upon talking to Natalie, she persuaded me that my water was still not properly cycled to introduce new fish. I did buy $28 in plants and convinced Natalie to hold the Angelfish for a week. I came home and tested the water. Nitrate is between 1. and 2. ppm and Ammonia is still a nontoxic .25 ppm. Natalie believes in a week my tank should be ready for the Angelfish. There have been no new casualties with the Tetras.

Aquarium 20090322

Aquarium 20090322

Update: 23 March 2009
I tested the water first thing this morning because I am eager to get those Angelfish. Here are the results.
Nitrite: 2.0 ppm
Nitrate: 20.0 ppm
pH: 7.2
Ammonia: 0 ppm

Water Test 20090323

Water Test 20090323

Unlike the first image, I am standardizing my water tests from left to right: Nitrate, Nitrate, pH and Ammonia. I should probably do a bit of research on this entire nitrogen cycle thing.

“Nitrogen Cycle by Shirley Sharpe
http://freshaquarium.about.com/cs/biologicalcycle/a/nitrogencycle.htm

Call it cycling, nitrification, biological cycle, startup cycle, break-in cycle, or the nitrogen cycle. No matter what name you use, every newly set up aquarium goes through a process of establishing beneficial bacterial colonies. Older aquariums also go through periods during which the bacterial colonies fluctuate. Failure to understand this process is the largest contributing factor to the loss of fish. Learning what it is, and how to deal with critical periods during the nitrogen cycle, will greatly increase your chances of successful fish keeping.

The Waste Problem
Unlike nature, an aquarium is a closed environment. All the wastes excreted from the fish, uneaten food, and decaying plants stay inside the tank. If nothing eliminated those wastes, your beautiful aquarium would turn into a cesspool in no time at all.

Actually, for a short period of time, a new aquarium does become a toxic cesspool. The water may look clear, but don’t be fooled. It’s loaded with toxins. Sounds awful, doesn’t it? Fortunately bacteria that are capable of converting wastes to safer by-products begin growing in the tank as soon as fish are added. Unfortunately there aren’t enough bacteria to eliminate all the toxins immediately, so for a period of several weeks to a month or more, your fish are at risk.

However, you need not lose them. Armed with an understanding of how the nitrogen cycle works and knowing the proper steps to take, you can sail through the break-in cycle with very few problems.

Stages of the Nitrogen Cycle
There are three stages of the nitrogen cycle, each of which presents different challenges.

Initial stage: The cycle begins when fish are introduced to the aquarium. Their feces, urine, as well as any uneaten food, are quickly broken down into either ionized or unionized ammonia. The ionized form, Ammonium (NH4), is present if the pH is below 7, and is not toxic to fish. The unionized form, Ammonia (NH3), is is present if the pH is 7 or above, and is highly toxic to fish. Any amount of unionized Ammonia (NH3) is dangerous, however once the levels reach 2 ppm, the fish are in grave danger. Ammonia usually begins rising by the third day after introducing fish.

Second stage: During this stage Nitrosomonas bacteria oxidize the ammonia, thus eliminating it. However, the by-product of ammonia oxidation is nitrite, which is also highly toxic to fish. Nitrites levels as low as low as 1 mg/l can be lethal to some fish. Nitrite usually begins rising by the end of the first week after introducing fish.

Third stage: In the last stage of the cycle, Nitrobacter bacteria convert the nitrites into nitrates. Nitrates are not highly toxic to fish in low to moderate levels. Routine partial water changes will keep the nitrate levels within the safe range. Established tanks should be tested for nitrates every few months to ensure that levels are not becoming extremely high.

Now that you know what is happening, what should you do? Simple steps such as testing and changing the water will help you manage the nitrogen cycle without losing your fish. For details about what to do next, continue to Page 2.

(Continued from Page 1)
What To Do
The key for success is testing the water for ammonia and nitrites, and taking action quickly when problems occur. To aid in tracking the status of your aquarium, links to charts for logging your tests can be found under the charts section of this page. Each chart shows the danger zones and offers steps to reduce toxins before they result in loss of your fish.

Test for ammonia: Begin testing on day three after adding the fish, and continue every day until the ammonia begins to drop. After it begins to fall, continue testing every other day until the ammonia reaches zero. Using the chart provided, plot the ammonia levels. Should ammonia reach the danger zone, take steps as shown on the chart. If at any time fish show signs of distress, such as rapid breathing (gilling), clamped fins, erratic swimming, or hanging at the surface for air, take immediate action to lower the ammonia level. Chemicals such as Ammo-Lock will quickly neutralize toxic ammonia.

Test for nitrites: Begin testing one week after adding the fish. Continue testing every second or third day, until it reaches zero. Using the chart provided, plot the nitrite levels and take steps as shown on the chart if nitrite reaches the danger zone. If at any time fish show signs of distress, such as rapid breathing or hanging near the surface seemingly gasping for air, test for nitrite. If levels are elevated perform an immediate 25-50% water change and test daily until levels drop.

What Not To Do
Don’t add more fish – wait until the cycle is completed.

Don’t change the filter media – the beneficial bacteria are growing there. Don’t disturb them until they have become well established.

Don’t overfeed the fish – when in doubt underfeed your fish. Remember that anything going into the tank will produce wastes one way or another.

Don’t try to alter the pH – the beneficial bacteria can be affected by changes in pH. Unless there is a serious problem with the pH, leave it alone during the startup cycle process.

Have questions? Continue to Page 3 for answers to the most commonly asked questions.

(Continued from Page 2)
Q: Will adding bacteria solutions, such as those available at pet shops, eliminate the break-in cycle?
A: No, due to lack of an ongoing supply of ammonia and oxygen, the nitrification bacteria cannot survive in a bottle for a prolonged period of time. There are manufacturers making special preparations of the nitrogen fixing bateria. However, what you see on the shelf at the store is simply the bacteria needed for the first stage of the cycle, not nitritfying bacteria. Since the bacteria needed for the first stage of the cycle is already present in the tank once it is set up, there is no need to purchase more of what you already have.

Q: Will changing the water lengthen the time of the cycle?
A: It is true that partial water changes decrease the level of ammonia and nitrites, which in turn triggers less growth of the bacteria that feed on them. That doesn’t mean you shouldn’t perform water changes. If the ammonia or nitrite levels become too high, the fish will die. That means that partial water changes should be done whenever toxins reach dangerous levels, even if it means if it slows down the completion of the cycle.

Q: Won’t filling the tank and letting it run for several days before adding the fish get the nitrogen cycle going?
A: No, the cycle doesn’t start the instant the tank is set up. An ongoing supply of ammonia must be present for the process to begin. That only happens if fish are in the tank, or ammonia is added regularly, as is done in “fishless cycling”.

Q: A friend started a new aquarium and didn’t test the water or do water changes. In spite of all that, he didn’t lose a single fish. If he can get away with that, why can’t I?
A: Your friend probably had the magic combination of several of these key factors; relatively few fish, very hardy fish, a large aquarium, minimal feeding, live plants, and water with a low pH. While it is possible to get through the startup-cycle without doing anything, it is not wise to leave it to chance. The only way to be sure you don’t lose fish is to test your water to monitor what’s happening, and take steps if ammonia or nitrite levels soar too high.

Q: What if nothing works to bring the levels down?
A: Keep performing water changes and don’t give up. If ammonia or nitrite levels still remain elevated, feel free to e-mail me for help. Be sure to mark your e-mail URGENT, include all the testing values in your e-mail, as well as the size of your tank, number of fish in the tank, and how long your tank has been running. If you wish to have me call you, include a phone number where you may be reached.

Nitrite Poisoning
http://freshaquarium.about.com/cs/disease/p/nitritepoison.htm
Nitrite Poisoning
By Shirlie Sharpe , About.com

See More About:
nitrogen cycle
ammonia
nitrates
aquarium salt
water changes
Disease Type: Environmental

Cause: Nitrite

Names: Brown Blood Disease, Nitrite Poisoning

Description: Nitrite poisoning follows closely on the heels of ammonia as a major killer of aquarium fish. Just when you think you are home free after losing half your fish to ammonia poisoning, the nitrites rise and put your fish at risk again. Anytime ammonia levels are elevated, elevated nitrites will soon follow. To avoid nitrite poisoning, test when setting up a new tank, when adding new fish to established an tank, when the filter fails due to power or mechanical failure, and when medicating sick fish.
Symptoms:
Fish gasp for breath at the water surface
Fish hang near water outlets
Fish is listless
Tan or brown gills
Rapid gill movement

Also known as ‘brown blood disease’ because the blood turns brown from a increase of methemoglobin. However, methemoglobin causes a more serious problem than changing the color of the blood. It renders the blood unable to carry oxygen, and the fish can literally suffocate even though there is ample oxygen present in the water.
Different species of fish tolerate differing levels of nitrite. Some fish may simply be listless, while others may die suddenly with no obvious signs of illness. Common symptoms include gasping at the surface of the water, hanging near water outlets, rapid gill movement, and a change in gill color from tan to dark brown.
Fish that are exposed to even low levels of nitrite for long periods of time suffer damage to their immune system and are prone to secondary diseases, such as ich, fin rot, and bacterial infections. As methemoglobin levels increase damage occurs to the liver, gills and blood cells. If untreated, affected fish eventually die from lack of oxygen, and/or secondary diseases.
Treatment:
Large water change
Add salt, preferably chlorine salt
Reduce feeding
Increase aeration

The addition of one half ounce of salt per gallon of water will prevent methemoglobin from building up. Chlorine salt is preferable, however any aquarium salt is better than no salt at all. Aeration should be increased to provide ample oxygen saturation in the water. Feedings should be reduced and no new fish should be added until the tank until the ammonia and nitrite levels have fallen to zero.
Nitrite is letal at much lower levels than ammonia. Therefore it is critical to continue daily testing and treatment until the nitrite falls to zero.
Prevention:
Stock new tanks slowly
Feed sparingly and remove uneaten food
Change water regularly
Test water regularly to catch problems early

The key to elminating fish death is to avoid extreme spikes and prolonged elevation of nitrites. When starting a new tank, add only a couple of fish initially and do not add more until the tank is completely cycled. In an established tank, only add a couple of new fish at a time and avoid overstocking.
Feed fish small quantities of foods, and remove any food not consumed in five minutes. Clean the tank weekly, taking care to remove an dead plants or other debris. Perform a partial water change at least every other week, more often in small heavily stocked tanks. Always test the water for nitrite after an ammonia spike has occured as there will be a nitrite increase later. ”


What's That Bug? does not endorse extermination