Bumble Bees vs Yellow Jackets: Uncovering Their Differences

Bumble bees and yellow jackets may appear similar at first glance, but they are quite different in many ways. Bumble bees are large, with hairy bodies, commonly found in black and yellow or black and white colors. They are known for their non-aggressive nature, and they typically build their nests in the ground, where dozens of bees can live harmoniously together. However, when their nest is disturbed, they may become defensive and possess a painful sting.

On the other hand, yellow jackets have a more aggressive demeanor and are often mistaken for bees due to their similar coloring. Unlike bumble bees, yellow jackets live in aerial nests or wall cavities, and they do not shrink away from chasing people or animals that disturb their nests. While both species play crucial roles in pollination, it’s essential to know the difference between them to avoid painful encounters and appreciate their contributions to our ecosystem.

Diving deeper into their characteristics, bumble bees are important pollinators for various plants, while yellow jackets are primarily scavengers that feed on insects and other food sources. The two species also differ in their life cycles and behaviors, with bumble bees having a more seasonal presence, whereas yellow jackets maintain a consistent activity throughout the year. In conclusion, understanding and appreciating the unique qualities of each insect can help us better coexist with these fascinating creatures.

Bumble Bees and Yellow Jackets: An Overview

Key Differences in Appearance

Bumble Bees:

  • Large, plump, and fuzzy
  • Black and yellow or black and white color pattern
  • Fuzzy hairs on head, abdomen, and legs

Yellow Jackets:

  • Smaller and less fuzzy compared to bumble bees
  • Yellow and black patterned
  • Thin waist connecting the thorax and abdomen

Comparison table:

Bumble Bees Yellow Jackets
Size Large and plump Smaller and thinner
Color Black and yellow or black and white Yellow and black
Hair Fuzzy Less hairy

Habitat and Nesting Preferences

Bumble Bees:

  • Build nests in the ground, like yellowjackets
  • Can accommodate dozens of bees
  • Each colony has a single queen, with other female and male bees

Yellow Jackets:

  • Nests can be underground or in wall cavities
  • Aggressive in defending their nest
  • Foraging yellow jackets often make a “bee line” straight to the nest, which is usually within 1,000 yards from the food source (source)

Behaviour and Aggressiveness

Bumble Bees:

  • Considered gentle
  • Not aggressive unless their nest is disturbed

Yellow Jackets:

  • Known for their aggressive behavior
  • Will chase and attack if their nest is disturbed or threatened
  • Can deliver painful stings and may chase for up to 50 yards or more (source)

Comparison table:

Bumble Bees Yellow Jackets
Aggression Gentle, unless nest is disturbed Aggressive, especially when defending their nest
Stinging Behavior Rare, unless provoked Will chase and sting if threatened

Overall, recognizing the differences between bumble bees and yellow jackets is essential for avoiding conflicts with these flying insects and appreciating their role in the environment. Bumble bees serve as essential pollinators for various crops, while yellow jackets can help control prey populations in their ecosystem. Staying mindful of their habits and behaviors will allow for a greater understanding and coexistence with these fascinating creatures.

Roles and Impact on the Environment

Benefits of Bumble Bees

Bumble bees, with their hairy bodies, play a key role in pollination due to their unique foraging habits. They bring life to gardens and ecosystems by:

  • Pollinating a variety of flowers
  • Collecting nectar and pollen for their colony
  • Creating new colonies to maintain the population of bumble bees

For example, bumble bees are particularly useful for plants like tomatoes, which require a special type of pollination called “buzz pollination.”

Significance of Yellow Jackets

Yellow jackets are significant for their role as predators in gardens and ecosystems. Their primary impact includes:

  • Controlling insect pests like caterpillars, aphids, and larvae
  • Assisting the ecosystem in keeping the population of these pests in check
  • Providing some pollination when foraging for nectar

However, yellow jackets can also pose a challenge due to their aggressive behavior and potential for causing an allergic reaction from their sting.

Bumble Bees Yellow Jackets
Primary Role Pollination Pest control
Colony Formation New colonies annually Seasonal colonies
Pollination High efficacy Limited contribution
Risk to Humans Low, non-aggressive High, aggressive

In summary, both bumble bees and yellow jackets have distinct roles and impacts on the environment. Bumble bees contribute to pollination and the growth of plants, while yellow jackets aid in controlling insect pests. However, their aggressive nature can pose a risk to humans, resulting in a need for careful management in gardens and ecosystems.

The Sting: Comparing Bumble Bees and Yellow Jackets

Stinging Mechanism

Bumble bees and yellow jackets both have stinging capabilities, but they function differently:

  • Bumble bees: Possess a smooth stinger, allowing them to sting multiple times. However, they are rarely aggressive and typically sting as a last resort.
  • Yellow jackets: Have a smooth stinger as well, but are more likely to sting, especially when their nest is threatened. Caution should be taken around their nests as they can become defensive and chase after a perceived threat.

Differences in Pain and Reaction

Although both insects can sting, there are differences in the pain and reaction individuals may experience:

  • Bumble bee stings: Tend to be less painful and the venom is less toxic, but can still cause localized pain, swelling, and itching. Allergic reactions are less common, but possible.
  • Yellow jacket stings: Can be more painful due to their more aggressive behavior and a higher concentration of venom. These stings can cause pain, redness, and swelling at the sting site. Allergic reactions may be more likely compared to bumble bee stings.

Comparison Table: Bumble Bees vs Yellow Jackets

Feature Bumble Bees Yellow Jackets
Stinger Smooth stinger Smooth stinger
Sting aggression Rarely aggressive More defensive
Pain Less More
Allergic reactions Less common More common

In conclusion, it’s essential to understand the differences between bumble bees and yellow jackets to be cautious around them. Respecting their natural habitats can minimize the risk of being stung and avoid any unnecessary pain or potential allergic reactions.

Similarities and Interactions Between the Two Species

Coexistence in the Ecosystem

Both bumble bees and yellow jackets are essential components of their respective ecosystems. They share some similarities in their roles:

  • Pollinators: Bumble bees are known for their exceptional pollination abilities, while yellow jackets, though not as efficient, still contribute to pollination.
  • Predators: They both help control insect populations, with yellow jackets preying on various insects and bumble bees consuming nectar and pollen.

Examples of Coexistence

  1. Bumble bees and yellow jackets can often be found foraging in the same areas, such as gardens or fields with flowering plants.
  2. Both insects are attracted to certain colors and scents, resulting in possible interactions while searching for food sources.

Potential Conflicts

Despite their coexistence, conflicts can arise between these two species:

  • Competition: While bumble bees primarily consume nectar and pollen, yellow jackets have a more diverse diet, often competing for the same resources.
  • Defense Mechanisms: Both bumble bees and yellow jackets can sting when provoked; however, yellow jackets are generally more aggressive and can sting multiple times.

Examples of Conflicts

  1. If a bumble bee hive is located near a yellow jacket nest, territorial disputes can occur, leading to aggressive behavior between the two colonies.
  2. Gardeners and outdoor enthusiasts might accidentally disturb either a bumble bee or yellow jacket nest, causing the insects to defend their respective homes.

Comparison Table

Feature Bumble Bees Yellow Jackets
Habitat Ground, tree cavities, or man-made structures In-ground nests, wall cavities, trees
Diet Primarily nectar and pollen Omnivorous: insects, fruits, nectar
Social Structure Eusocial colonies with queen, workers, and drones Eusocial colonies, queen with workers
Pollination Highly effective pollinators Less efficient pollinators
Aggressiveness Generally not aggressive unless disturbed More aggressive and highly defensive

Preventing and Managing Issues in Your Garden

Keeping a Safe Distance

While both yellow jackets and bumble bees play important roles in our ecosystem, they have different behaviors that require caution in your garden. Yellow jackets, a species of wasp, are known to be more aggressive than bumblebees, especially when they feel threatened. They may build nests in cavities, making them hard to notice. If you find a nest, keep a distance of at least 50 yards, as yellow jackets will chase intruders if provoked.

On the other hand, bumblebees are mostly docile and less likely to attack unless they feel threatened. They’re fuzzy, flying creatures that help pollinate plants in your garden. It’s still smart to maintain a respectful distance from bumblebee nests to avoid accidental provocation.

Yellow jackets vs. Bumblebees:

Yellow Jackets Bumblebees
Aggressiveness More aggressive Docile
Nest Location Cavities, hard to notice Visible bee nests
Response to Threat Chase intruders when provoked Attack when threatened

Pest Control Measures

In addition to keeping a safe distance, you can also take pest control measures to protect yourself and your garden from issues with both yellow jackets and bumblebees. For yellow jacket nests, avoid handling them on your own. It’s best to call a pest control professional for safe removal.

To prevent attracting yellow jackets in the first place, follow these steps:

  • Cover trash cans tightly
  • Keep meat and fruit concealed during outdoor gatherings
  • Seal any openings to walls or cavities where they might nest

For bumblebees, you can also use pesticides sparingly to avoid harming these important pollinators. Avoid using systemic insecticides, as they can linger in flowers and expose bees to harmful concentrations even after treatment.

Pest control for yellow jackets:

  • Call a pest control professional for nest removal
  • Keep food sources covered and sealed
  • Maintain distance from nests

Pest control for bumblebees:

  • Use pesticides sparingly
  • Avoid systemic insecticides
  • Keep a respectful distance from nests

Reader Emails

Over the years, our website, whatsthatbug.com has received hundreds of letters and some interesting images asking us about these insects. Scroll down to have a look at some of them.

Letter 1 – Southern Yellowjacket Queen emerges from hibernation

 

Southern Yellowjacket queen
Location: North Central Indiana
April 5, 2012 12:43 pm
Last night I saw this thing crawling across my sofa out of the corner of my eye. It was quite large and I thought it was a Cicada Killer. But since it didn’t match any photos I found online I kept searching. I finally found my answer this morning: Southern Yellowjacket Queen. She was still where I left her on the window when I got up this morning so I put her outside where she crawled underneath my house near the front door. I hope she doesn’t start a hive there once she has finished hibernating. Thought you would enjoy these photos!
Signature: Emily

Southern Yellowjacket Queen

Hi Emily,
We agree with your identification.  This description on BugGuide agrees with your photo:  “This species is highly distinctive and unmistakable. All castes possess conspicuous yellow longitudinal stripes on the mesoscutum, a trait shared with the closely-related allopatric Vespula sulphurea but no species within its range. The queens and workers are dimorphic. Workers and males have similar abdominal patterns, with no free spots and an unusual pair of lateral yellow stripes through the black basal band of the second tergite. Queens of this species are quite large for a yellowjacket, with orange fascia on the abdomen expanded to nearly obliterate the dark markings.”  This photo of a queen from BugGuideis a very close match to your individual.  Thank you for doing all the research prior to sending your photos.

Southern Yellowjacket Queen

 

Letter 2 – Southern Yellowjacket Queen

 

Subject: some sort of hornet?
Location: Missouri, United States
May 10, 2014 8:16 pm
lately I’ve been flipping over old rotten wood pieces and finding a hornet like this nestled into the wood. I don’t see these flying around or anything and they don’t look like any hornet I’ve googled, so I was hoping you could help out!
Signature: Stolz

Southern Yellowjacket Queen
Southern Yellowjacket Queen

Dear Stolz,
This is a Southern Yellowjacket,
Vespula squamosa, and we believe it is a queen whose winter hibernation you have interrupted. According to BugGuide:  “Queens are facultative temporary social parasites, and frequently usurp established young nests of other yellowjacket species, usually V. maculifrons. There are also records of this species utilizing V. vidua and V. flavopilosa as hosts. The queens are extremely large and robust for a yellowjacket, a trait which surely helps them to overpower and kill the host queens of the colonies they usurp. A study in Georgia found that about 80% of V. squamosa colonies began by usurpation of a V. maculifrons colony. Facultative temporary social parasitism means that the species may parasitize other species, but is still capable of founding its own colonies, and it retains a worker caste. After killing the host queen, the squamosa adopts the nest and host workers, who raise her offspring. The colony eventually becomes pure squamosa as the original host workers die off.”  BugGuide also states:  “This species emerges in spring later than its frequent host, Vespula maculifrons, so that there are numerous young colonies available for usurpation.”

Letter 3 – Our Favorite Letter of the day: Aerial Yellowjackets nest in mausoleum!!!

 

Bee Nest in Cemetery
July 13, 2010
Hi,
I was exploring a cemetery in Canal Fulton (Northeast Ohio) and got stung when looking into a mausoleum.

Yellowjacket Nest at Mathie Mausoleum

After recovering from the sting I returned to the site to see what stung me and why, I did not see this nest at first and I’m sure I was stung because I got too close. Can you tell me what type of bee/wasp these are?
Thanks
Dave
Canal Fulton, OH

Yellowjacket Nest on Ionic Column

Hi Dave,
We don’t mean to make light of what we are certain was a painful sting, but we found your letter positively captivating, and we think your photos are exceptional.  These are Yellow Jackets, most probably Eastern Yellowjackets,
Vespula maculifrons, which BugGuide indicates is:  “one of the most abundant yellowjackets in the U.S. east of the Plains states.”  BugGuide also states the Eastern Yellowjacket is found in “Meadows and edges of forested land, usually nesting in ground or at ground level in stumps and fallen logs.”  Perhaps the queen, who started building this nest before she had produced a brood of workers, mistook that ionic column for a stump.

Update: July 15, 2010
We now believe this is probably the Common Aerial Yellowjacket,
Dolichovespula arenaria, which is featured on BugGuide.

Eric Eaton Confirms ID
Hi, Daniel:
“Has” to be the “Aerial Yellowjacket,” Dolichovespula arenaria.  They are actually quite beneficial predators of flies, so if they can be left alone…..The nesting season for this species is also shorter than for others, so it should be abandoned sometime in late August or early September at the latest.
Eric

Letter 4 – Recipe for Yellow Jacket Soup

 

Edible Bugs
O’siyo Oginalii, (Hello, my friend)
I am Aniyunwiya (Tsalagi or Cherokee), descended from those who were not captured and sent to out west, or confined to North Carolina. I found your page after a painter asked what the cocoons on my house were. I said, “Bagworms” and he said that could not be right. He was incorrect. I have spent the last hour looking through your site, and have added it to my “Favorites.” I would like to share a couple of recipes with you. Yellowjacket grubs can be made into soup after removing them from the comb, which is best achieved by placing the comb upon a fire (or a stove) until the covering is parched–this makes it easier to remove the grubs. Next, brown them in the oven. They are good to eat like this, or they may now be used in soup. Early morning or late afternoon is the best time to harvest the comb. Locusts also are edible. It is best to gather them immediately after they have emerged from their shells, otherwise you will have to peel them. Gather them after dark, or they will not be good. Wash them and fry them. They may be eaten hot or cold.
Tla-i-ga (BlueJay)

Wow Tla-i-ga,
We are sure David Gracer will be thrilled with this information.

Letter 5 – Southern Yellowjacket Queen

 

Subject: Was told Japanese hornet??
Location: southeast USA
March 11, 2014 6:07 am
I’m not sure if this is a hornet, or a wasp. It resembles what I’ve always heard of as a “news carrier bee” in the south.. but I don’t now a name for it, or if this bug is the same as that..
I tried sending this with my LG G2, but I’m not sure the photos attached properly using that method..so here it is again.
open my trash can and almost threw a bag on this guy, which would’ve likely killed him. instead I grabbed the cup he was on the lid of and set him on some nearby grass
Signature: Jon in Alabama

Southern Yellowjacket
Southern Yellowjacket Queen

Dear Jon,
To the best of our knowledge, the Japanese Hornet has NOT been introduced to North America.  This is a Southern Yellowjacket,
Vespula squamosa, and you can compare your image to this image on BugGuide.  We suspect this is a queen and that she will soon be starting a new colony.  According to BugGuide:  “Queens are facultative temporary social parasites, and frequently usurp established young nests of other yellowjacket species, usually V. maculifrons. There are also records of this species utilizing V. vidua and V. flavopilosa(5) as hosts. The queens are extremely large and robust for a yellowjacket, a trait which surely helps them to overpower and kill the host queens of the colonies they usurp. A study in Georgia found that about 80% of V. squamosa colonies began by usurpation of a V. maculifrons colony.(2) Facultative temporary social parasitism means that the species may parasitize other species, but is still capable of founding its own colonies, and it retains a worker caste. After killing the host queen, the squamosa adopts the nest and host workers, who raise her offspring. The colony eventually becomes pure squamosa as the original host workers die off.”
P.S.  The Good News Bee or Yellowjacket Hoverfly is an effective mimic of the Yellowjacket.

Letter 6 – Stung By Yellowjacket

 

Subject:  I got stung by a swarm
Geographic location of the bug:  In my yard Norfolk in Virginia
Date: 10/14/2021
Time: 10:43 PM EDT
Your letter to the bugman :  I’m trying to find out what the bug is that stung me and I was hoping you could help me identify it
How you want your letter signed:  On the front

Yellowjacket

You were stung by a Yellowjacket, a social wasp that typically nests underground.  Yellowjackets will defend the nest from the perceived threats.

Letter 7 – Mason Wasp, not Yellow Jacket

 

Rescued Wasp – Thanks for the kudos, Daniel
Location: Hawthorne, California
June 22, 2011 8:20 pm
Hello again, Daniel. I’m hoping you can help me identify this wasp. It’s another insect that I fished out of the bird bath recently. I thought from the markings that it was one I had photographed before, but that was the Kanye West Fly, aka Eristalinus taeniops.
Thanks very much for your time! We hoped to come and see you speak the end of last month, but were unable to attend. Maybe next time. . . just realized that you named me ”INSECT HUMANITARIAN OF THE WEEK”. Thanks very much. Cracked me up! I fish buggies out of the bird bath just about every day and my success rate is astounding! If only I knew insect CPR.
Signature: Thanks, Anna Carreon

Mason Wasp

Hi Anna,
We seem to have run into a snag in trying to identify this wasp.  At first we were quite certain that it is a Yellow Jacket, but its markings don’t seem to match any of the species posted to BugGuide. Even more puzzling is that it looks nothing like the Western Yellow Jackets posted on BugGuide, nor does it appear to be a European Paper Wasp, which according to BugGuide, has orange antennae.  We are going to try to contact Eric Eaton to get his opinion.
P.S.  Though you were only named Insect Humanitarian of the Week, you should know that there has not been another Insect Humanitarian named since you earned the title, which means that thusfar you have no competition for the Insect Humanitarian of the Year contest.

Hi Daniel,
This wasp is quite small.  I don’t know if wasps hatch fully grown or not, but if you notice the wood screw in the photo you can tell it’s size.  I appreciate your time on this little guy.
We also have some other flies in the garden that I’ve not seen before, but I was able to identify them at BugGuide.net.  They are attracted to a flower named Bishop’s Flower (Ammi majus), which I’ve also not seen before.  The seeds for it came out of one little packet that I bought about this time last year.  It’s amazing that germination of many of the different seeds in the packet has taken place over almost one year.  Still enjoying that investment so!
Hope we can get out to see you next time you speak.
Anna

Eric Eaton makes a correction
Daniel:
This is a mason wasp, family Vespidae, subfamily Eumeninae (see BugGuide).  I don’t know most of them well enough to be more specific.  Nice image, though!
Eric

Letter 8 – Southern Yellowjacket Mating Frenzy

 

mating yellow jackets?
Mon, Oct 6, 2008 at 10:10 AM
At first, I thought this cluster was chowing down on some hapless insect, but that doesn’t appear to be the case, does it?
Not more than half a mile away, while walking the dog, we wandered too close to a nest and Jester got his butt stung by another one — I guess it’s just that time of year!

Yellowjacket Mating Frenzy
Yellowjacket Mating Frenzy

Hi Pat,
Since you had our email address from before our site migration, you did not submit this letter with the new form that requires that a location be provided for identification purposes. We wish you had included your location in your letter. We will contact Eric Eaton to see if he can provide any information on this mating frenzy of Yellowjackets.

oops, sorry. We’re located in Southwest Michigan, just about a mile from the Lake Michigan.

October 7, 2008
Daniel:
Yes, these are male “southern yellowjackets,” Vespula squamosa, mobbing a new queen. This species is somewhat unique in that it is a facultative (as opposed to “obligatory”) social parasite of other yellowjackets. In the spring, if nesting sites are scarce, a queen southern yellowjacket may attack the queen of another species and kill her. The workers of the host species then raise the offspring of the southern queen. Most colonies of the host species have small numbers of workers when this happens, and it may not happen with a high degree of frequency.
Eric

Reader Emails

Over the years, our website, whatsthatbug.com has received hundreds of letters and some interesting images asking us about these insects. Scroll down to have a look at some of them.

Letter 1 – Southern Yellowjacket Queen emerges from hibernation

 

Southern Yellowjacket queen
Location: North Central Indiana
April 5, 2012 12:43 pm
Last night I saw this thing crawling across my sofa out of the corner of my eye. It was quite large and I thought it was a Cicada Killer. But since it didn’t match any photos I found online I kept searching. I finally found my answer this morning: Southern Yellowjacket Queen. She was still where I left her on the window when I got up this morning so I put her outside where she crawled underneath my house near the front door. I hope she doesn’t start a hive there once she has finished hibernating. Thought you would enjoy these photos!
Signature: Emily

Southern Yellowjacket Queen

Hi Emily,
We agree with your identification.  This description on BugGuide agrees with your photo:  “This species is highly distinctive and unmistakable. All castes possess conspicuous yellow longitudinal stripes on the mesoscutum, a trait shared with the closely-related allopatric Vespula sulphurea but no species within its range. The queens and workers are dimorphic. Workers and males have similar abdominal patterns, with no free spots and an unusual pair of lateral yellow stripes through the black basal band of the second tergite. Queens of this species are quite large for a yellowjacket, with orange fascia on the abdomen expanded to nearly obliterate the dark markings.”  This photo of a queen from BugGuideis a very close match to your individual.  Thank you for doing all the research prior to sending your photos.

Southern Yellowjacket Queen

 

Letter 2 – Southern Yellowjacket Queen

 

Subject: some sort of hornet?
Location: Missouri, United States
May 10, 2014 8:16 pm
lately I’ve been flipping over old rotten wood pieces and finding a hornet like this nestled into the wood. I don’t see these flying around or anything and they don’t look like any hornet I’ve googled, so I was hoping you could help out!
Signature: Stolz

Southern Yellowjacket Queen
Southern Yellowjacket Queen

Dear Stolz,
This is a Southern Yellowjacket,
Vespula squamosa, and we believe it is a queen whose winter hibernation you have interrupted. According to BugGuide:  “Queens are facultative temporary social parasites, and frequently usurp established young nests of other yellowjacket species, usually V. maculifrons. There are also records of this species utilizing V. vidua and V. flavopilosa as hosts. The queens are extremely large and robust for a yellowjacket, a trait which surely helps them to overpower and kill the host queens of the colonies they usurp. A study in Georgia found that about 80% of V. squamosa colonies began by usurpation of a V. maculifrons colony. Facultative temporary social parasitism means that the species may parasitize other species, but is still capable of founding its own colonies, and it retains a worker caste. After killing the host queen, the squamosa adopts the nest and host workers, who raise her offspring. The colony eventually becomes pure squamosa as the original host workers die off.”  BugGuide also states:  “This species emerges in spring later than its frequent host, Vespula maculifrons, so that there are numerous young colonies available for usurpation.”

Letter 3 – Our Favorite Letter of the day: Aerial Yellowjackets nest in mausoleum!!!

 

Bee Nest in Cemetery
July 13, 2010
Hi,
I was exploring a cemetery in Canal Fulton (Northeast Ohio) and got stung when looking into a mausoleum.

Yellowjacket Nest at Mathie Mausoleum

After recovering from the sting I returned to the site to see what stung me and why, I did not see this nest at first and I’m sure I was stung because I got too close. Can you tell me what type of bee/wasp these are?
Thanks
Dave
Canal Fulton, OH

Yellowjacket Nest on Ionic Column

Hi Dave,
We don’t mean to make light of what we are certain was a painful sting, but we found your letter positively captivating, and we think your photos are exceptional.  These are Yellow Jackets, most probably Eastern Yellowjackets,
Vespula maculifrons, which BugGuide indicates is:  “one of the most abundant yellowjackets in the U.S. east of the Plains states.”  BugGuide also states the Eastern Yellowjacket is found in “Meadows and edges of forested land, usually nesting in ground or at ground level in stumps and fallen logs.”  Perhaps the queen, who started building this nest before she had produced a brood of workers, mistook that ionic column for a stump.

Update: July 15, 2010
We now believe this is probably the Common Aerial Yellowjacket,
Dolichovespula arenaria, which is featured on BugGuide.

Eric Eaton Confirms ID
Hi, Daniel:
“Has” to be the “Aerial Yellowjacket,” Dolichovespula arenaria.  They are actually quite beneficial predators of flies, so if they can be left alone…..The nesting season for this species is also shorter than for others, so it should be abandoned sometime in late August or early September at the latest.
Eric

Letter 4 – Recipe for Yellow Jacket Soup

 

Edible Bugs
O’siyo Oginalii, (Hello, my friend)
I am Aniyunwiya (Tsalagi or Cherokee), descended from those who were not captured and sent to out west, or confined to North Carolina. I found your page after a painter asked what the cocoons on my house were. I said, “Bagworms” and he said that could not be right. He was incorrect. I have spent the last hour looking through your site, and have added it to my “Favorites.” I would like to share a couple of recipes with you. Yellowjacket grubs can be made into soup after removing them from the comb, which is best achieved by placing the comb upon a fire (or a stove) until the covering is parched–this makes it easier to remove the grubs. Next, brown them in the oven. They are good to eat like this, or they may now be used in soup. Early morning or late afternoon is the best time to harvest the comb. Locusts also are edible. It is best to gather them immediately after they have emerged from their shells, otherwise you will have to peel them. Gather them after dark, or they will not be good. Wash them and fry them. They may be eaten hot or cold.
Tla-i-ga (BlueJay)

Wow Tla-i-ga,
We are sure David Gracer will be thrilled with this information.

Letter 5 – Southern Yellowjacket Queen

 

Subject: Was told Japanese hornet??
Location: southeast USA
March 11, 2014 6:07 am
I’m not sure if this is a hornet, or a wasp. It resembles what I’ve always heard of as a “news carrier bee” in the south.. but I don’t now a name for it, or if this bug is the same as that..
I tried sending this with my LG G2, but I’m not sure the photos attached properly using that method..so here it is again.
open my trash can and almost threw a bag on this guy, which would’ve likely killed him. instead I grabbed the cup he was on the lid of and set him on some nearby grass
Signature: Jon in Alabama

Southern Yellowjacket
Southern Yellowjacket Queen

Dear Jon,
To the best of our knowledge, the Japanese Hornet has NOT been introduced to North America.  This is a Southern Yellowjacket,
Vespula squamosa, and you can compare your image to this image on BugGuide.  We suspect this is a queen and that she will soon be starting a new colony.  According to BugGuide:  “Queens are facultative temporary social parasites, and frequently usurp established young nests of other yellowjacket species, usually V. maculifrons. There are also records of this species utilizing V. vidua and V. flavopilosa(5) as hosts. The queens are extremely large and robust for a yellowjacket, a trait which surely helps them to overpower and kill the host queens of the colonies they usurp. A study in Georgia found that about 80% of V. squamosa colonies began by usurpation of a V. maculifrons colony.(2) Facultative temporary social parasitism means that the species may parasitize other species, but is still capable of founding its own colonies, and it retains a worker caste. After killing the host queen, the squamosa adopts the nest and host workers, who raise her offspring. The colony eventually becomes pure squamosa as the original host workers die off.”
P.S.  The Good News Bee or Yellowjacket Hoverfly is an effective mimic of the Yellowjacket.

Letter 6 – Stung By Yellowjacket

 

Subject:  I got stung by a swarm
Geographic location of the bug:  In my yard Norfolk in Virginia
Date: 10/14/2021
Time: 10:43 PM EDT
Your letter to the bugman :  I’m trying to find out what the bug is that stung me and I was hoping you could help me identify it
How you want your letter signed:  On the front

Yellowjacket

You were stung by a Yellowjacket, a social wasp that typically nests underground.  Yellowjackets will defend the nest from the perceived threats.

Letter 7 – Mason Wasp, not Yellow Jacket

 

Rescued Wasp – Thanks for the kudos, Daniel
Location: Hawthorne, California
June 22, 2011 8:20 pm
Hello again, Daniel. I’m hoping you can help me identify this wasp. It’s another insect that I fished out of the bird bath recently. I thought from the markings that it was one I had photographed before, but that was the Kanye West Fly, aka Eristalinus taeniops.
Thanks very much for your time! We hoped to come and see you speak the end of last month, but were unable to attend. Maybe next time. . . just realized that you named me ”INSECT HUMANITARIAN OF THE WEEK”. Thanks very much. Cracked me up! I fish buggies out of the bird bath just about every day and my success rate is astounding! If only I knew insect CPR.
Signature: Thanks, Anna Carreon

Mason Wasp

Hi Anna,
We seem to have run into a snag in trying to identify this wasp.  At first we were quite certain that it is a Yellow Jacket, but its markings don’t seem to match any of the species posted to BugGuide. Even more puzzling is that it looks nothing like the Western Yellow Jackets posted on BugGuide, nor does it appear to be a European Paper Wasp, which according to BugGuide, has orange antennae.  We are going to try to contact Eric Eaton to get his opinion.
P.S.  Though you were only named Insect Humanitarian of the Week, you should know that there has not been another Insect Humanitarian named since you earned the title, which means that thusfar you have no competition for the Insect Humanitarian of the Year contest.

Hi Daniel,
This wasp is quite small.  I don’t know if wasps hatch fully grown or not, but if you notice the wood screw in the photo you can tell it’s size.  I appreciate your time on this little guy.
We also have some other flies in the garden that I’ve not seen before, but I was able to identify them at BugGuide.net.  They are attracted to a flower named Bishop’s Flower (Ammi majus), which I’ve also not seen before.  The seeds for it came out of one little packet that I bought about this time last year.  It’s amazing that germination of many of the different seeds in the packet has taken place over almost one year.  Still enjoying that investment so!
Hope we can get out to see you next time you speak.
Anna

Eric Eaton makes a correction
Daniel:
This is a mason wasp, family Vespidae, subfamily Eumeninae (see BugGuide).  I don’t know most of them well enough to be more specific.  Nice image, though!
Eric

Letter 8 – Southern Yellowjacket Mating Frenzy

 

mating yellow jackets?
Mon, Oct 6, 2008 at 10:10 AM
At first, I thought this cluster was chowing down on some hapless insect, but that doesn’t appear to be the case, does it?
Not more than half a mile away, while walking the dog, we wandered too close to a nest and Jester got his butt stung by another one — I guess it’s just that time of year!

Yellowjacket Mating Frenzy
Yellowjacket Mating Frenzy

Hi Pat,
Since you had our email address from before our site migration, you did not submit this letter with the new form that requires that a location be provided for identification purposes. We wish you had included your location in your letter. We will contact Eric Eaton to see if he can provide any information on this mating frenzy of Yellowjackets.

oops, sorry. We’re located in Southwest Michigan, just about a mile from the Lake Michigan.

October 7, 2008
Daniel:
Yes, these are male “southern yellowjackets,” Vespula squamosa, mobbing a new queen. This species is somewhat unique in that it is a facultative (as opposed to “obligatory”) social parasite of other yellowjackets. In the spring, if nesting sites are scarce, a queen southern yellowjacket may attack the queen of another species and kill her. The workers of the host species then raise the offspring of the southern queen. Most colonies of the host species have small numbers of workers when this happens, and it may not happen with a high degree of frequency.
Eric

Authors

    by
  • Bugman

    Bugman aka Daniel Marlos has been identifying bugs since 1999. whatsthatbug.com is his passion project and it has helped millions of readers identify the bug that has been bugging them for over two decades. You can reach out to him through our Contact Page.

  • Piyushi Dhir

    Piyushi is a nature lover, blogger and traveler at heart. She lives in beautiful Canada with her family. Piyushi is an animal lover and loves to write about all creatures.

3 thoughts on “Bumble Bees vs Yellow Jackets: Uncovering Their Differences”

  1. I thought yellow jackets had their nests in the ground, like bumble bees and only hornets made the paper nests like this.

    Reply
    • Thanks for asking your question. First off, Yellowjackets and Hornets are closely related, both being in the subfamily Vespinae. We know that Yellowjackets often nest underground, so we did additional research. One species in particular, the Common Aerial Yellowjacket, Dolichovespula arenaria, frequently nests above ground. According to BugGuide: “They have mostly aerial nests, from a few centimeters above ground to the tops or trees, or houses or sheds. But in some cases they build nests under rocks or even underground.” The BugGuide data page also lists them in Ohio.

      Reply
  2. When does the queen leave to hibernate? Or do they die in the cold or dig deeper? The nest with a larger hole is only a few steps away from my door, should I block it up? I got stung last week. I had dozens in my apartment, good thing I had my black light, they’re very attracted to it. I just waited till they got done buzzing up and down on it, all out of energy. Then I just grabbed two at a time and threw them outside. I caught two and one got out of the tissue, started walking up, so I shook it and it walked up the tissue on the inside and stung my finger, right through the tissue! They have such a thin stinger, it felt like it fell through my skin with no force at all … I hurried and rinsed my hand and squeezed the poison out and it worked, it didn’t sting too long after

    Reply

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