The Bella Moth, scientifically known as Utetheisa ornatrix, is a unique and visually striking creature.
This moth stands out from other species, as it is diurnal, meaning it is active during the day, in contrast to many nocturnal moth counterparts.
This is why the Bella Moth is more commonly seen by the public, as it often flies when disturbed during daylight hours.
Native to various regions in Florida, the Bella Moth plays a fascinating ecological role, adapting to feed on the seeds of invasive plants.
One such example is its relationship with Crotalaria retusa, a poisonous plant that the Bella Moth helps to control through its feeding habits.
The captivating appearance of the Bella Moth, combined with its unique diurnal activity and ecological impact, make it a fascinating subject for further study and appreciation.
Bella Moth Identification and Distribution
Appearance and Coloration
The Ornate Bella Moth (Utetheisa ornatrix) exhibits a striking and vibrant appearance. Its colors range from:
A key feature to identify this moth is the presence of unique white bands on their wings.
The patterns on the wings resemble abstract art, contributing to their ornate appearance.
Wingspan and Hindwings
Bella Moths have an average wingspan of about 1.5 inches, making them relatively small in size.
The forewings and hindwings both contribute to their vibrant appearance.
The hindwings display bold black spots and a pink-to-red base color.
Compared to other moths, the Bella Moth’s wingspan is smaller and more delicate.
Bella Moth can be found in various parts of the world:
- Eastern North America
- Southeastern United States
- Central America
- South America (up to Argentina)
- Parts of the United States (New Mexico, Connecticut, Nebraska)
The moth is also known to inhabit parts of Mexico, effectively spanning from the United States down to South America, thus having a broad range of distribution.
These diurnal moths are in the Arctiinae subfamily, a group of moths that tends to inhabit warm and tropical regions.
Being diurnal, the Bella Moth is more likely to be seen by the public as it is active during daylight hours.
Bella Moth Life Cycle and Habitat
Eggs and Larvae
The life cycle of the Bella moth begins when females lay their eggs on host plants, which are often Crotalaria species.
The caterpillars hatch from these eggs and start feeding on the seeds of the host plants. Some features of their larvae stage are:
- Feed on seeds of Crotalaria host plants
- Develop on the same plant throughout their larval stage
Pupa and Adults
Once the caterpillars have grown, they enter the pupal stage. Adult moths emerge after a short period of pupation.
Some key characteristics of adult Bella moths are:
- Diurnal and commonly seen by the public
- Distinctive hindwing with a pink and black color pattern
When comparing the Bella moth’s life stages, we can see:
|Life Stage||Duration||Main Activity|
|Eggs||Short period||Laid on host plants by females|
|Larvae||Varies||Feeding on host plant’s seeds|
|Pupa||Short period||No activity|
|Adults||Varies||Mating and laying eggs|
The Bella moth’s habitat spans across eastern North America, southeastern United States, and Central America.
Their habitat typically consists of areas with Crotalaria host plants.
Adult moths can feed on nectar from flowers and are known to be active during the day, unlike most moth species.
Overall, the Bella moth’s life cycle is concise, progressing from the egg-laying stage to larvae, pupa, and finally, adult moths.
They are fascinating creatures with a unique habitat and behavior compared to other moth species.
Bella Moth Food and Host Plants
The Bella moth, Utetheisa ornatrix, has a strong relationship with plants in the Crotalaria genus, commonly called rattlebox plants.
Feeding primarily on seeds, these plants are essential for the survival and development of Bella moth larvae.
Some key features of Crotalaria plants:
- Produce seed pods that rattle when shaken
- Contain toxic alkaloids, specifically pyrrolizidine alkaloids
- Provide protection for Bella moth larvae from predators due to their toxicity
One of the main host plants for Bella moth larvae is the Crotalaria spectabilis.
This particular Crotalaria species possesses attractive yellow flowers, but it’s the toxic seeds that Bella moth larvae consume.
Characteristics of Crotalaria spectabilis:
- Large, showy yellow flowers
- Produces seed pods with a distinct rattling sound
- High levels of pyrrolizidine alkaloids
|Comparison||Crotalaria Species||Crotalaria Spectabilis|
|Seed appearance||Varies by species||Large, dark seeds|
|Flower color||Different colors depending on species||Yellow|
|Alkaloid levels||Toxin varies among species||High levels of toxic alkaloids|
These host plants play a crucial role in the Bella moth lifecycle, providing not just nourishment, but protection from predators due to the toxins they contain.
Bella Moth Ecology and Interactions
Predators and Threats
Given the toxicity of the Bella Moth, few predators pose a great threat to them. However, some birds and insects may still attempt to prey on them.
In these cases, their bright colors and patterns serve as a warning signal, indicating their toxic nature to potential predators.
Bella Moths play a role in controlling invasive plants.
As they feed on the seeds of toxic plants like Crotalaria retusa, they can help keep the spread of these plants in check (Florida Museum).
This contributes to maintaining a balance in local ecosystems.
|Predators||Few, due to toxicity|
|Diet||Plants with toxic alkaloids, e.g., Crotalaria retusa|
|Protection Mechanism||Incorporating plant toxins; warning coloration|
|Ecological Significance||Controlling invasive plant species|
Bella Moth Features
- Bright colors
- Patterns on wings
- Diurnal flight behavior
- Incorporated plant toxins
- Birds (to a lesser extent, due to toxicity)
- Insects (to a lesser extent, due to toxicity)
Mating and Reproduction
Courtship and Pheromones
The Bella Moth (Utetheisa ornatrix), also known as the Ornate Moth, engages in a unique courtship process.
Males use courtship pheromones to attract females, one of which is called hydroxydanaidal.
This pheromone is released by the male moth in response to stimulation from nearby females.
- Pheromones play a significant role in the mating process
- Thomas Eisner, a pioneer in chemical ecology, studied the Bella Moth’s courtship pheromones
Mating Strategies and Sexual Selection
The Bella Moth exhibits complex mating strategies that result in bright coloration and other advantageous traits.
Males transfer nutrients to females during mating through a spermatophore, which may contain sperm and essential nutrients.
Male and female Bella Moths exhibit different reproductive strategies:
|Male Strategy||Female Strategy|
|Release pheromones to attract females||Choose mate based on quality of spermatophore|
|Invest in spermatophore production||Avoid mating with multiple partners|
Bella Moth larvae have interesting relationships with their hosts and often cannibalize other larvae.
They are part of the subfamily Arctiinae, which encompasses a diverse group of moths with various mating strategies and selection pressures.
Some Arctiinae larvae may spin silk to create a protective barrier, whereas others, like Bella Moths, might turn to cannibalism in times of limited resources
Bella Moth Taxonomy and Classification
The Bella Moth belongs to the order Lepidoptera and the family Erebidae.
It was first described by Hübner in 1807, and its subspecies were later studied by Forbes in 1910.
Bella Moths are notable for their vibrant colors and their diurnal behavior, being active during the day, unlike most moth species.
They have an interesting relationship with the plant Crotalaria spectabilis, which they use as a host for their larvae.
Below are some key features of the Bella Moth:
- Order: Lepidoptera
- Family: Erebidae
- Genus: Utetheisa
- Species: ornatrix
Bella Moths exhibit some fascinating biological characteristics, such as the presence of coremata.
Coremata are special, hair-like structures found in male moths, used to release pheromones to attract females.
The Bella Moth, scientifically termed as Utetheisa ornatrix, is a diurnal moth, active during the day, distinguishing it from many nocturnal moth species.
Native to regions like Florida, it plays a pivotal ecological role by feeding on the seeds of invasive plants, particularly Crotalaria retusa.
This relationship not only aids in controlling the spread of such plants but also provides the moth with toxins that deter predators.
The moth’s vibrant appearance, combined with its unique diurnal activity and ecological significance, underscores its importance in the ecosystem and makes it a subject of intrigue and study.
Over the years, our website, whatsthatbug.com has received hundreds of letters and some interesting images asking us about bella moths. Scroll down to have a look at some of them.
Letter 1 – Bella Moth
hi, you may not remember me i sent you a few pictures about maybe 4 months ago of three different caterpillars, one of them was utethesia bella which i was able to take a picture of on it’s host plant, the photo is attached, and recently i found another caterpillar, i hope this image is a little clearer than the others were. thanks.
Thanks for sending in the photo of the Bella Moth, though Audubon refers to it as a Rattlebox Moth.
Letter 2 – Ornate Bella Moth
Subject: What kind of bug is this?
Geographic location of the bug: Popano Beach, Florida
Time: 10:45 AM EDT
Your letter to the bugman: This bug is really different. What is it?
How you want your letter signed: Alice
This is an Ornate Bella Moth, Utetheisa ornatrix bella, a species represented on our site with a pale individual, but BugGuide has an image colored similarly to your individual. According to BugGuide: “adults fly during the day” and “adults fly from July to September in north; all year in south.”
Letter 3 – Utetheisa bella
Could you please identify this pretty little critter. As you can tell it
likes mums. It is small and looks pinkish when fluttering.
Your lovely photo is of a species of moth from the Family Arctiidae, or Tiger Moths. Our old Holland Book identifies it as Utetheisa bella or Beautiful Utetheisa. It is a common moth which frequents the blossoms of Goldenrod in the late summer and early fall. The moth exhibits some color variations and is found along the Atlantic Seaboard.
Letter 4 – Utetheisa pulchella from Israel
dearest bug people,
once again, thank you for such a wonderful site. i found this little guy (1/2 inch) flying around our control room at the israeli electric co.) i couldn’t get him to pose with his wings open but the under wings were sort of plain, greyish beige. what kind of moth is it???
michael bailey – israel
This looks so much like the American Rattlebox Moth, Utetheisa bella, that we were surprised to read your letter that it is from Israel. A google search of the genus name and Israel led us to a site that pictures Utetheisa pulchella.