Are Termites Decomposers? Uncovering Their Role in Ecosystems

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Termites are often mistaken for mere pests that damage wooden structures.

However, these insects play a vital role in the decomposition process, specifically in breaking down deadwood in tropical ecosystems.

These small yet mighty creatures contribute a significant portion to the process of decomposition.

In fact, a study conducted in Borneo found that termites can decompose more than 58 to 64% of mass loss from dead wood.

This highlights the reality that termites serve a crucial function in maintaining the balance of the carbon cycle in such environments.

Are Termites Decomposers
Subterranean Termites

Are Termites Decomposers?

Role in Ecosystem

Termites play a vital role in ecosystems as decomposers, recycling dead and decaying trees into new soil.

By breaking down tough plant fibers, they convert dead trees into nourishment for young trees and plants.

Their tunneling activities also help aerate and improve soil, promoting healthy plant growth.

One example of their importance in the ecosystem is in tropical rainforests, where termites contribute to 58-64% of mass loss from deadwood.

This considerable decomposition contribution highlights termites’ significance in the carbon cycle.

Nutrient Cycling

Besides breaking down wood, termites also assist in nutrient cycling within ecosystems.

Their digestive systems are home to symbiotic bacteria and protozoa that aid in breaking down cellulose within the dead plant material.

As termites consume dead material, they excrete feces rich in nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus, and calcium.

In addition, termites help with water distribution in the ecosystem.

Their tunnels allow water to penetrate deeper into the soil, thus creating a more optimal environment for plant growth.

Termite Alate

Example of Termite’s Decomposition Contribution in Ecosystems:

  • Tropical rainforests
  • Forests and wooded areas
  • Grasslands and savannas

Characteristics of Termites as Decomposers:

  • Break down tough plant fibers
  • Convert dead trees into nourishment
  • Aerate and improve soil
  • Assist in nutrient cycling
  • Contribute to the carbon cycle

Nutrients Released by Termites:

  • Nitrogen
  • Phosphorus
  • Calcium

In conclusion, termites are essential decomposers in a variety of ecosystems, playing a critical role in breaking down dead materials, nutrient cycling, and overall ecosystem health.

Termite Digestion Process

Symbiotic Relationship with Microorganisms

Termites have a complex symbiotic relationship with microorganisms in their guts.

These microorganisms, such as protozoa, bacteria, and archaea, play a major role in breaking down cellulose from the termite’s diet.

Lower termites mainly rely on unique lineages of cellulolytic flagellates, while higher termites only harbor bacteria and archaea.

This relationship benefits both parties:

  • Termites get assistance in digesting organic material
  • Microorganisms receive a safe environment and nutrients

Termites also share these microorganisms through a process called trophallaxis, which helps maintain the gut microbiota for efficient digestion.


Features of termites’ symbiotic relationship:

  • Mutualistic
  • Involves protozoa, bacteria, and archaea
  • Occurs in both lower and higher termite species

Cellulose Breakdown

Cellulose, a complex carbohydrate found in plant cell walls, serves as the primary source of nutrition for termites. Here’s how it’s broken down:

  1. Enzyme production: Microorganisms in termite guts produce enzymes called cellulases that are specifically designed to break down cellulose.
  2. Conversion to sugar: Cellulose is converted into simple sugars like glucose, which termites use as a primary energy source.
  3. Carbon and nitrogen recycling: The process helps recycle carbon and nitrogen within ecosystems by converting plant material into other compounds.


  • Termites feeding on wood are performing an important ecological function by breaking down dead tree material
  • This is especially applicable for the subterranean termites, which are responsible for major structural damage

Comparison table: Lower vs. higher termites

 Lower TermitesHigher Termites
MicroorganismsUnique cellulolytic flagellatesBacteria and archaea only
DistributionIn different diet groupsMore uniform distribution

In summary, the termite digestion process relies on a mutualistic relationship with microorganisms, wherein they assist each other in breaking down cellulose and other organic materials.

This relationship not only benefits the termites but also helps maintain ecological balance through carbon and nitrogen recycling.

By understanding this process, we can better appreciate termites’ role in the environment and their significance as decomposers.

Types of Termites and Their Decomposition Roles

Subterranean Termites

Subterranean termites are significant wood-destroying pests in the southern United States.

They live below ground and pose a major problem in controlling or preventing infestations. Some characteristics of subterranean termites include:

  • Tunneling through soil, mud tubes, and food sources
  • Often discovered during construction or when swarming

These termites play a crucial role in decomposing dead wood, contributing to the carbon cycle in ecosystems.



Cockroaches, although not termites, are closely related and belong to the same order, Blattodea.

They have similar roles in biomass decomposition. Some features of cockroaches are:

  • Breaking down organic materials and recycling nutrients
  • Contributing to healthy soil formation

Cockroaches, like termites, serve as vital decomposers in various ecosystems.

African Termites

Africa is home to multiple species of termites that play key roles in wood decomposition. These termites are especially important in tropical ecosystems.

  • Significant decomposers in forested ecosystems containing over 675 billion tons of biomass
  • Found to contribute between 58 and 64% of mass loss from deadwood in Borneo

African termites display specialized roles in carbon cycling and prevent dead plants and animals from piling up.

Decomposer TypeRole in DecompositionEcosystem Impact
Subterranean TermitesWood-destroying pestsSignificant in southern US ecosystems
CockroachesOrganic material decompositionIntegral in nutrient recycling
African TermitesMajor wood decomposersCritical in tropical ecosystems


To wrap it up, our exploration into termites as decomposers underscores their crucial role in ecosystems.

These tiny creatures excel at breaking down tough plant materials, turning them into valuable nutrients that enrich the soil.

This process plays a pivotal role in maintaining the balance of nature and highlighting the intricate connections between different living organisms in our environment.

Reader Emails

Over the years, our website, has received hundreds of letters and some interesting images asking us about termites. Scroll down to have a look at some of them.

Letter 1 – Termites from Australia

Subject:  What is this insect?
Geographic location of the bug:  Sydney Australia
Date: 12/06/2017
Time: 05:20 AM EDT
This insect falls from the roof of the house in the bathroom and we have also found it near the kitchen…are these termites,and if so, should we be concerned, if we found say ten or fifteen?
How you want your letter signed :  Omasr


Dear Omasr,
You are correct.  These are Termites.


Letter 2 – Termite, NOT Book Lice in Brisbane Australia

Brown bug found in bedrooms & living areas
December 20, 2009
We have today found a great deal of these brown bugs in mainly our 3 carpeted bedrooms and also in our living areas, which have floor boards. We have had our house sprayed in the last 3 months and the majority of these bugs were dead, with a few still just alive. They have prominent black eyes on the sides of their heads and a black dot in the area where their mouth would be. They measure about 7 mm long and have 6 legs and their antelliers are approx 5 mm long. They are a medium brown colour.
I have been searching the internet to try and find out what type of bug they are, but as yet I haven’t been able to guess what they may be.
Thank you for your help.
Grossed out
Brisbane, Queensland, Australia

Book Louse

Dear Grossed Out,
You have Book Lice or Psocids in the family Liposcelidae.  Book Lice
frequently infest homes where they are best known for feeding on the starch bindings of books.  Your photos are very small with poor resolution, and upon posting the images to our site, we needed to enlarge them and the quality has degraded with visual noise.  According to the South Cambridgeshire Government Website:  “Psocids are harmless in small numbers and rarely cause damage by direct feeding. However, large number may cause damage to delicate materials such as books and fur.  Signs of an infestation are holes and tunnels in which the insect hides plus a covering of white powdery material and salt crystals.  They will contaminate raw, processed foods and infest items such as bagged nuts, chocolate, milk powder, cereals, sugar, flour to name just a few.  Finished products may become infested in either warehouses, retail premises or the home.”  According to the Texas A&M University Extension website:  “Booklice, Liposcelis corredens Heymons, are very small (less than 1/16 in long), mobile, flesh-colored insects that share our homes and feed on microscopic molds, together with dried or decaying plant and animal materials. Often, they are noticed on starchy book bindings, photographs, wall paper, stored dry goods, or in the vicinity of these items. These insects may become particularly abundant in dark, damp places such as basements, storerooms, homes closed for the summer, and closets during the warmer periods of the year. As a group, booklice do little actual  damage, except when contaminating stored food and food packaging material, but their presence in large numbers can be very annoying making control desirable. Although booklice are not true lice and never bite or live on animals, ancestral forms of these creatures are thought to have evolved into lice as a result of the long association between the host’s dwelling, the host, and these scavengers.
Management  Total control of booklice in dwellings is not possible in many cases, such as in loosely constructed buildings. These insects can and will easily come in from outdoors, where they commonly occur. For control, clean the infested areas thoroughly, taking as many objects as possible outside and drying them in the sun on a bright day. Open the windows and doors, turn off any humidifiers and air the room thoroughly using a fan or dehumidifier. Occasionally, faulty air conditioner systems promote damp, humid conditions. These systems should be repaired If feasible, raise the room temperature. Since booklice are soft bodied insects, they dry out easily when exposed to heat and dry air.  Locate breeding sites such as upholstered furniture, moldy wood, old mattresses, damp papers or books, etc and remove, treat or discard them. Also discard infested food or treat it by heating (place in oven at 180°F or for 30 minutes) or freezing (placing in freezer at 0°F for 4 days). Protect uninfested foods by using tight-sealing moisture-proof containers (refer to L-2046, “Pantry pests” for additional control in stored food).

Book Louse

Correction courtesy of Doug Yanega
Subject: mistaken ID in WTB
November 13, 2012 6:29 pm
Hi, Dan. I just came across the link to this older (2009) article: 2009/12/20/book-lice-in-brisbane-australia/
The photo shows a small termite, not a booklouse. You might want to do something about this; I don’t know if the photo was submitted by the person who wrote the question, or added later. Either way, it’s not what it claims to be.
Signature: Doug Yanega

Letter 3 – Flying Termites

what are these bugs?
Hey there
These guys seem to have gathered around one of my windows in the last few days; when I keep the window open, they try to get in and more and more of them show up. They seem to be losing their wings pretty easily. When I close the window, they hang out but not in such numbers. I’m able to make them go away temporarily by putting a stick of incense between the screen and the window (shut), but inevitably, they come back. What are they and how do you get rid of them? I’m in LA (in case that helps figure out what these are). Thank you

Flying Termite
Flying Termite

Hi Nat
You have Termites. These are flying reproductive king and queen Termites on their nuptial flight. Luckily, they are on the outside trying to get in. If they were on the inside trying to get out, we would say you have a termite infestation problem indoors. Generally, in Southern California, we see swarming termites on warm sunny spring days after a period of rain.

Letter 4 – HOAX!!!!

According to Eric Eaton “Well, the mulch from Louisiana thing is a bunch of hogwash. Total urban myth, not an issue. I have this straight from Ag officials. No worries.”

DO NOT BUY MULCH FROM LOUISIANA- from Environmental Dep at FAU- Valeria Volin- saturated in formosan termites!
Love Michele
For those gardeners among us: If you use mulch around your house be very careful about buying mulch this year. After the hurricane in New Orleans many trees were blown over. These trees were then turned into mulch and the state is trying to get rid of tons and tons of this mulch to any state or company who will come and haul it away. So it will be showing up in Home Depot and Lowes at dirt cheap prices with one huge problem; Formosan Termites will be the bonus in many of those bags. New Orleans is one of the few areas in the country were the Formosan Termites has gotten a strong hold and most of the trees blown down were already badly infested with those termites. Now we may have the worst case of transporting a problem to all parts of the country that we have ever had. These termites can eat a house in no time at all and we have no good control against them, so tell your friends that own homes to avoid cheap mulch and know were it came from.

Letter 5 – Unknown Insects found dead on windowsill might be Termite Alates

Subject: Almost looks like a Jerusalem cricket?
Location: Los Angeles , ca
March 3, 2013 8:08 pm
Found these lil guys on my windowsill.. They were covered in sticky goo and all dead.. Was wondering what they were ? Just found them today so early march 🙂 thank you !!
Signature: Cillie

What died on the window sill?
What died on the windowsill?  Termite Alates

Dear Cillie,
We agree that these do look like miniature Jerusalem Crickets or Potato Bugs, but we don’t understand how they found their way to your windowsill.  Was this home windowsill or a garage windowsill?  Perhaps one of our readers will be able to help us solve this mystery.  Perhaps they hatched from some potted plant.  We would not discount that they might be Ants.

Termite Alates
Termite Alates

Nope not a potted plant or garage.. Third story up from ground level in my house. All sorts of critters work there way in here.. A lot of co existing.. Haha.. Thank you for responding! I’m just so curious.. Never seen anything like that. Thanks again!
Oh wild.. I just saw your bio and live in happy valley,  el sereno… Next hill over from you.. So same terrain 🙂

Eric Eaton provides a possibility
They look to me like winged termites, albeit severely mangled…Maybe drywood termites, especially given the location on the window sill.

Letter 6 – Termite Pellets, we suppose

Subject: little sesame seed like things in my bed
Location: NYC
February 21, 2013 7:01 pm
Every morning I wake up and there are about 30-50 of these little sesame seed like objects in my bed. I have read about pets leaving things like that from tapeworms but i do not have pets. I feel fine, no stomach issues and am not getting bitten overnight. I have no idea where these things are coming from.
Signature: BK

Termite Pellets, probably
Termite Pellets, probably

Dear BK,
Though we have identified Sesame Seeds as suspected insects in the past, and despite the lack of clarity in your photograph, we are going to eliminate sesame seeds as suspects in your situation.  We believe you have Termite Pellets, fecal matter containing digested wood.  Depending upon where they are appearing, you may
have a Termite infestation in your walls, beams or possibly even the bed itself.  There may be some helpful information in this article about how to protect your home from termites.


  • Bugman

    Bugman aka Daniel Marlos has been identifying bugs since 1999. is his passion project and it has helped millions of readers identify the bug that has been bugging them for over two decades. You can reach out to him through our Contact Page.

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  • Piyushi Dhir

    Piyushi is a nature lover, blogger and traveler at heart. She lives in beautiful Canada with her family. Piyushi is an animal lover and loves to write about all creatures.

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4 Comments. Leave new

  • Do you have eyed worker termites?

  • Can´t they be half-rotten cockroach nymphs? Even of Periplaneta americana? They roughly match the colour of dry nymphs (although lacking antennae) and that would explain why there are so many together. A lost old ootheca nearby might confirm the mistery.

    • Since Cockroaches and Termites are actually closely related, you might be correct, however, we agree with Eric Eaton that their location on a windowsill strongly supports the Termite Alates identification.


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